Dissemination of invasive Salmonella via bacterial-induced extrusion of mucosal epithelia.

Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites and Research Technologies Branch, Microscopy Unit, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 09/2010; 107(41):17733-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1006098107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that resides and proliferates within a membrane-bound vacuole in epithelial cells of the gut and gallbladder. Although essential to disease, how Salmonella escapes from its intracellular niche and spreads to secondary cells within the same host, or to a new host, is not known. Here, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of Salmonella hyperreplicating in the cytosol of epithelial cells serves as a reservoir for dissemination. These bacteria are transcriptionally distinct from intravacuolar Salmonella. They are induced for the invasion-associated type III secretion system and possess flagella; hence, they are primed for invasion. Epithelial cells laden with these cytosolic bacteria are extruded out of the monolayer, releasing invasion-primed and -competent Salmonella into the lumen. This extrusion mechanism is morphologically similar to the process of cell shedding required for turnover of the intestinal epithelium. In contrast to the homeostatic mechanism, however, bacterial-induced extrusion is accompanied by an inflammatory cell death characterized by caspase-1 activation and the apical release of IL-18, an important cytokine regulator of gut inflammation. Although epithelial extrusion is obviously beneficial to Salmonella for completion of its life cycle, it also provides a mechanistic explanation for the mucosal inflammation that is triggered during Salmonella infection of the gastrointestinal and biliary tracts.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Entry into host cells and intracellular persistence by invasive bacteria are tightly coupled to the ability of the bacterium to disrupt the eukaryotic cytoskeletal machinery. Herein we review the main strategies used by three intracellular pathogens to harness key modulators of the cytoskeleton. Two of these bacteria, namely Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, exhibit quite distinct intracellular lifestyles, and therefore, provide a comprehensive panel for the understanding of the intricate bacteria-cytoskeleton interplay during infections. The emerging intracellular pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is depicted as a developing model for the uncovering of novel mechanisms used to hijack the cytoskeleton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Cellular Microbiology 12/2014; · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica is a common cause of diarrhea. For eliciting disease, the pathogen has to colonize the gut lumen, a site colonized by the microbiota. This process/initial stage is incompletely understood. Recent work established that one particular strain, Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344, employs the hyb H2-hydrogenase for consuming microbiota-derived H2 to support gut luminal pathogen growth: Protons from the H2-splitting reaction contribute to the proton gradient across the outer bacterial membrane which can be harvested for ATP production or for import of carbon sources. However, it remained unclear, if other Salmonella strains would use the same strategy. In particular, earlier work had left unanswered if strain ATCC14028 might use H2 for growth at systemic sites. To clarify the role of the hydrogenases, it seems important to establish if H2 is used at systemic sites or in the gut and if Salmonella strains may differ with respect to the host sites where they require H2 in vivo. In order to resolve this, we constructed a strain lacking all three H2-hydrogenases of ATCC14028 (14028hyd3) and performed competitive infection experiments. Upon intragastric inoculation, 14028hyd3 was present at 100-fold lower numbers than 14028WT in the stool and at systemic sites. In contrast, i.v. inoculation led to equivalent systemic loads of 14028hyd3 and the wild type strain. However, the pathogen population spreading to the gut lumen featured again up to 100-fold attenuation of 14028hyd3. Therefore, ATCC14028 requires H2-hydrogenases for growth in the gut lumen and not at systemic sites. This extends previous work on ATCC14028 and supports the notion that H2-utilization might be a general feature of S. Typhimurium gut colonization.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e110187. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcription factors HilA and SsrB activate expression of two type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and cognate effectors that reprogram host cell functions to benefit infecting Salmonella in the host. These transcription factors, the secretion systems, and the effectors are all encoded by horizontally acquired genes. Using quantitative proteomics, we quantified the abundance of 2,149 proteins from hilA or ssrB Salmonella in vitro. Our results suggest that the HilA regulon does not extend significantly beyond proteins known to be involved in direct interactions with intestinal epithelium. On the other hand, SsrB influences the expression of a diverse range of proteins, many of which are ancestral to the acquisition of ssrB. In addition to the known regulon of T3SS-related proteins, we show that, through SodCI and bacterioferritin, SsrB controls resistance to reactive oxygen species and that SsrB down-regulates flagella and motility. This indicates that SsrB-controlled proteins not only redirect host cell membrane traffic to establish a supportive niche within host cells but also have adapted to the chemistry and physical constraints of that niche.
    mBio 08/2014; 5(5). · 6.88 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014