The safety of immunizing with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) less than 2 years following previous tetanus vaccination: Experience during a mass vaccination campaign of healthcare personnel during a respiratory illness outbreak
ABSTRACT Tdap is recommended for health care personnel (HCP) aged <65 years who received tetanus diphtheria or tetanus toxoid immunization (Td/TT) ≥2 years earlier. During a medical center Tdap vaccination campaign, we assessed the safety of use of a Td/TT to Tdap interval <2 years in HCP. We also describe reactogenicity in HCP who were aged ≥65 years or pregnant.
HCP vaccinated with Tdap were surveyed to assess time since last Td/TT (≥2 years vs. <2 years), age, pregnancy status, and injection site adverse events (AEs) during the 2 weeks after Tdap. AE rates were calculated and compared by non-inferiority analysis using a predetermined margin of 10%. We searched clinic logbooks to assess for clinically important adverse events during the 2 months after Tdap.
Of the 4524 vaccinated HCP, 2221 (49.1%) completed a safety survey which met criteria for analysis. Non-inferiority analysis found that rates of moderate and/or severe injection site AEs were not significantly greater in those vaccinated <2 years than in those vaccinated ≥2 years after previous Td/TT. Three serious adverse events were reported during the 2 months after vaccination, none in persons who were ≥65 years, pregnant or received Td/TT <2 years before.
Our findings add to the body of evidence that a short interval between Td/TT and a single dose of Tdap is safe.
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ABSTRACT: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 - April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influenza vaccine or a Tdap vaccine while pregnant. Women completed a survey assessing influenza vaccination history, likelihood of receiving antenatal influenza and/or Tdap vaccines, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about influenza, pertussis, and their associated vaccines. Seventy-three percent and 81% of women believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious during pregnancy while 87% and 92% believed influenza and pertussis, respectively, would be serious to their infants. Perception of pertussis severity for their infant was strongly associated with an intention to receive a Tdap vaccine before delivery (p=0.004). Despite perceptions of disease severity for themselves and their infants, only 34% and 44% intended to receive antenatal influenza and Tdap vaccines, respectively. Forty-six percent had low perceptions of safety regarding the influenza vaccine during pregnancy, and compared to women who perceived the influenza vaccine as safe, women who perceived the vaccine as unsafe were less likely to intend to receive antenatal influenza (48% vs. 20%; p < 0.001) or Tdap (53% vs. 33%; p < 0.001) vaccinations. Results from this baseline survey suggest that while pregnant women who remain unvaccinated against influenza within the first three months of the putative influenza season may be aware of the risks influenza and pertussis pose to themselves and their infants, many remain reluctant to receive influenza and Tdap vaccines antenatally. To improve vaccine uptake in the obstetric setting, our findings support development of evidence-based vaccine promotion interventions which emphasize vaccine safety during pregnancy and mention disease severity in infancy.01/2015; 7. DOI:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.d37b61bceebae5a7a06d40a301cfa819
Article: Vaccine Allergy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Overdiagnosis of vaccine allergy is considered a major public health problem. This article discusses the different types of allergic reactions after immunization based on the timing (immediate vs nonimmediate) and the extent of the reaction (local vs systemic). The vaccine components potentially responsible for an allergic reaction are discussed, as well as the management of patients with a history of reaction to a specific vaccine and those with a history of allergy to one of the vaccine components.Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 08/2014; 34(3):597–613. DOI:10.1016/j.iac.2014.04.004 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rising incidence of whooping cough, a highly contagious infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, is particularly significant for young infants who have the highest risk for morbidity and mortality. The pertussis resurgence has led to a shift in primary prevention relying on childhood vaccination to a cocooning strategy, that is, vaccination of close contacts of newborn infants (new mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, caretakers, etc.), thereby reducing pertussis exposure. Immunization of women during pregnancy rather than during the immediate postpartum period (the initial cocooning recommendation) appears to be a better approach by directly providing protection through transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies. This article describes neonatal pertussis, cocooning as a means of reducing neonatal exposure to pertussis and maternal immunization as a means of protecting young infants against pertussis infection.Expert Review of Vaccines 07/2014; 13(9):1-8. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2014.944509 · 4.22 Impact Factor