Assessing dietary intake in children and adolescents: Considerations and recommendations for obesity research.
ABSTRACT Abstract Dietary intake and food habits are important contributors to the obesity epidemic. They are highly modifiable components of energy balance and are usually targeted in both obesity prevention and treatment programs. However, measurement of total diet creates challenges and can convey a large burden in terms of cost, technical expertise, impact on respondents and time. It is not surprising therefore that comprehensive reports of dietary intake in children are uncommon and, when reported, have limitations. The aim of this paper is to guide researchers and practitioners in selecting the most appropriate dietary assessment method for situations involving children and adolescents. This paper presents a summary of the issues to consider when choosing a method, a description of some of the more commonly used dietary assessment methods for young people and a series of case-studies to illustrate the range of circumstances faced when measuring dietary intake. We recommend that researchers consider the specific components of dietary intake addressed in their research and practice, and whether diet should be reported comprehensively or as targeted components. Other considerations include age, cognitive ability, weight status, physical activity level, respondent burden, and reliability and validity in the context of program goals and research questions. A checklist for selecting the appropriate dietary methodology is provided. This guide aims to facilitate the reporting of dietary intake and food habits in the context of obesity using valid and reliable measures, thus contributing to the evidence-base for nutrition policies and programs relating to obesity.
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ABSTRACT: Diet quality tools provide researchers with brief methods to assess the nutrient adequacy of usual dietary intake. This study describes the development and validation of a pediatric diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Scores for Pre-schoolers (ARFS-P), for use with children aged two to five years.Nutrition Journal 09/2014; 13(1):87. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-87 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of energy misreporting amongst a sample of Malay children aged 9–11 years (n = 14) using a range of commonly used cut points. Participants were interviewed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls over three occasions. The Goldberg equations (1991 and 2000), Torun cut points and the Black and Cole method were applied to the data. Up to 11 of 14 children were classified as misreporters, with more under-reporters (between seven and eight children) than over-reporters (four or less children). There were significant differences in the proportion of children classified as energy misreporters when applying basal metabolic rate calculated using FAO/UNU/WHO (1985) and Malaysian-specific equations (p < 0.05). The results show that energy misreporting is common amongst Malay children, varying according to cut point chosen. Objective evaluation of total energy expenditure would help identify which cut point is appropriate for use in Malay paediatric populations.Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 10/2014; DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmu052 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Nutrition and physical activity interventions have been effective in creating environmental changes in afterschool programs. However, accurate assessment can be time-consuming and expensive as initiatives are scaled up for optimal population impact. This study aims to determine the criterion validity of a simple, low-cost, practitioner-administered observational measure of afterschool physical activity, nutrition, and screen time practices and child behaviors.Methods Directors from 35 programs in three cities completed the Out-of-School Nutrition and Physical Activity Observational Practice Assessment Tool (OSNAP-OPAT) on five days. Trained observers recorded snacks served and obtained accelerometer data each day during the same week. Observations of physical activity participation and snack consumption were conducted on two days. Correlations were calculated to validate weekly average estimates from OSNAP-OPAT compared to criterion measures. Weekly criterion averages are based on 175 meals served, snack consumption of 528 children, and physical activity levels of 356 children.ResultsOSNAP-OPAT validly assessed serving water (r¿=¿0.73), fruits and vegetables (r¿=¿0.84), juice >4oz (r¿=¿0.56), and grains (r¿=¿0.60) at snack; sugary drinks (r¿=¿0.71) and foods (r¿=¿0.68) from outside the program; and children¿s water consumption (r¿=¿0.56) (all p <0.05). Reports of physical activity time offered were correlated with accelerometer estimates (minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity r¿=¿0.59, p¿=¿0.02; vigorous physical activity r¿=¿0.63, p¿=¿0.01). The reported proportion of children participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity was correlated with observations (r¿=¿0.48, p¿=¿0.03), as were reports of computer (r¿=¿0.85) and TV/movie (r¿=¿0.68) time compared to direct observations (both p¿<¿0.01).ConclusionsOSNAP-OPAT can assist researchers and practitioners in validly assessing nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors in afterschool settings.Trial registrationPhase 1 of this measure validation was conducted during a study registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01396473.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 11/2014; 11(1):145. DOI:10.1186/s12966-014-0145-5 · 3.68 Impact Factor