Article

Adiposity and the Development of Premenstrual Syndrome

Department of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 1.9). 11/2010; 19(11):1955-62. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2128
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects 8%-20% of premenopausal women and causes substantial levels of impairment, but few modifiable risk factors for PMS have been identified. Adiposity may impact risk through the complex interaction of hormonal and neurochemical factors, but it is not known if adiposity increases a woman's risk of developing PMS. We have addressed these issues in a prospective study nested within the Nurses' Health Study 2.
Participants were a subset of women aged 27-44 and free from PMS at baseline, including 1057 women who developed PMS over 10 years of follow-up and 1968 controls. Body mass index (BMI), weight change and weight cycling were assessed biennially via questionnaire.
We observed a strong linear relationship between BMI at baseline and risk of incident PMS, with each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI associated with a significant 3% increase in PMS risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, and other factors, women with BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2) at baseline had significantly higher risks of PMS than women with BMI < 20 kg/m(2) (p(trend) = 0.003). A large weight change between age 18 and the year 1991 was significantly associated with PMS risk, whereas weight cycling during this period was not. BMI was positively associated with specific symptoms, including swelling of extremities, backache, and abdominal cramping (all p < 0.001).
Our findings suggest that maintaining a healthy body mass may be important for preventing the development of PMS. Additional studies are needed to assess whether losing weight would benefit overweight and obese women who currently experience PMS.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, May 23, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
120 Views
 · 
29 Downloads
  • Source
    • "The body mass index (BMI) of the subjects with PMS was greater than the BMI of the controls. These data were in consonance with the results found by previous studies [12]. During the present study, we observed that glucose concentrations in the luteal phase were significantly higher than in the follicular phase in controls. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively. No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005). The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls.
    Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine 06/2013; 40(2):76-82. DOI:10.5653/cerm.2013.40.2.76
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the associations of menstrual-related problems with mental health and health behaviors in a U.S. population-based study. We analyzed data obtained from women aged 18-55 years (n = 11,648) who participated in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, an ongoing, computer-assisted personal interview of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Approximately 19% of women aged 18-55 years reported experiencing menstrual-related problems (e.g., heavy bleeding, bothersome cramping, or premenstrual syndrome [PMS]). These women were significantly more likely than those without menstrual-related problems to report frequent anxiety and depression, insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and pain over the past 12 months. Women with menstrual-related problems were also significantly more likely to report feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, or worthless and that everything was an effort all or most of the time during the past 30 days. Cigarette smoking, drinking heavily, and being overweight or obese were also more frequently reported among women with menstrual-related problems than those without. Menstrual-related problems pose substantial implications for public health. Healthcare providers should examine mental health concerns in women reporting menstrual-related problems.
    Journal of Women's Health 06/2005; 14(4):316-23. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2005.14.316 · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine perimenstrual symptoms in relation to hot flushes and depressive symptoms among 755 pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years drawn from a general population in Puebla, Mexico. Methods Hot flushes and depressed mood during the past 2 weeks were queried, along with cramps and other symptoms experienced during or before menstruation. Relationships among perimenstrual symptoms were examined by factor analyses. Logistic regression was used to assess determinants of hot flushes and determinants of depressed mood at midlife. Results Fifty-four percent of the women reported abdominal cramping (cólicos) during menstruation; fewer reported irritability (8%) and depressed mood (9%). Gastrointestinal complaints were most frequently volunteered (12%), followed by breast tenderness (10%) and mid-back pain (9%). Emotional symptoms clustered separately from perimenstrual symptoms. In bivariate analyses, abdominal cramping and waist pain were associated with hot flushes at midlife (p <0.01) and remained significant determinants after controlling for potential confounders. Depressed mood with menstruation was associated with depressed mood at midlife (p <0.05). After controlling for education, socioeconomic status and parity, perimenstrual irritability and depressed mood raised the risk of midlife depressed mood, although significance was lost after adding current hot flushes and trouble sleeping. Conclusions The relationship between abdominal cramps and hot flushes may be hormonal or sociocultural. The lack of association between depressed mood with menstruation and depressed mood at midlife after controlling for current hot flushes and trouble sleeping suggests that concurrent difficulties were more important than past history of depression in this population.
    Climacteric 05/2012; 16(1). DOI:10.3109/13697137.2012.678914 · 2.24 Impact Factor
Show more