Gender Wage Discrimination Bias? A Meta-Regression Analysis
ABSTRACT This study provides a quantitative review of the empirical literature on gender wage discrimination. Although there is considerable agreement that gender wage discrimination exists, estimates of its magnitude vary widely. Our meta-regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the estimated gender gap has been steadily declining and the wage rate calculation to be crucial. Large biases are likely when researchers omit experience or fail to correct for selection bias. Finally, there appears to be significant gender bias in gender research. However, it is a virtuous variety where researchers tend to compensate for potential bias implicit in their gender membership.
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ABSTRACT: This paper provides a quantitative review of the empirical evidence on the impact of taxation on corporate debt finance. On the basis of 626 primary estimates taken from 23 studies, we find that the median tax-rate elasticity of debt ratios is around 0.44. The median tax-rate elasticity of incremental debt changes amounts to 2.47. There is, however, considerable variation in estimated tax effects on financial leverage. By means of meta-regressions, the paper aims to systematically explain this variation in terms of underlying study characteristics. The meta-regressions indicate that the heterogeneity in the semi-elasticities from the different studies can be fairly well explained by the characteristics of these studies. We find that the estimated tax elasticities are more pronounced if large firms or holding companies are considered. Moreover, our results suggest significantly higher tax elasticities of intercompany debt supporting the view that tax planning strategies of multinational firms affect debt financing.03/2011;
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ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to quantify the wage gap between native and immigrant women in Spain, taking into account differences in their characteristics and the need to control for common support. If immigrant women are segregated in occupations with few native women, it is important to take this into account to analyse wage differentials between both collectives. Design/methodology/approach – Microdata from the Continuous Sample of Working Histories (Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales) on wages and other personal characteristics such as gender, country of origin, and age were used to apply the matching procedure and the decomposition of the wage gap, along the lines of Ñopo, for the analysis of wage differentials between native and immigrant women. The advantage of this procedure is that one can simultaneously estimate the common support and the mean counterfactual wage for the women on the common support (i.e. comparing native and immigrant women with similar observable characteristics). In addition, differences not only at the mean but also along the entire wage distribution can be described. Findings – The results obtained indicate that, on average, immigrant women earn less than native women in the Spanish labour market. This wage gap is bigger when immigrant women from developing countries are considered, but the authors’ main finding is that an important part of this wage gap is related to differences in common support (i.e. immigrant women are segregated in certain jobs with low wages different from those occupied by native women). If the need to control for common support is neglected, estimates of the wage gap will be biased. Originality/value – Studying the case of Spain is particularly interesting because it is a country with abundant and recent immigration. Immigrant women account for more than half of the total immigrants in Spain, and unlike other host countries, they come from a highly varied range of countries, with origins as diverse as Latin America, the Maghreb and Eastern Europe. To the authors’ knowledge, no other study has explicitly focused on the analysis of the wage differential of immigrant women in the Spanish labour market by taking into account the need to control for common support. Moreover, published papers illustrating the potentiality of Ñopo's methodology are also very scarce.International Journal of Manpower 03/2012; 33(June):118-136. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Empirical research investigating the impact of top management team (TMT) diversity on executives’ decision making has produced inconclusive results. To synthesize and aggregate the results on the diversity-performance link, a meta-regression analysis (MRA) is conducted. It integrates more than 200 estimates from 53 empirical studies investigating TMT diversity and its impact on the quality of executives’ decision making as reflected in corporate performance. The analysis contributes to the literature by theoretically discussing and empirically examining the effects of TMT diversity on corporate performance. Our results do not show a link between TMT diversity and performance but provide evidence for publication bias. Thus, the findings raise doubts on the impact of TMT diversity on performance.Group & Organization Management 08/2013; 38(4):455-479. · 2.43 Impact Factor