Article

Ajuste estructural y costo social en la América Latina. ¿Qué nos explican los resultados recientes?

El Trimestre económico (Impact Factor: 0.06). 01/1994; LXI(1)(241):27-84.
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT "The economic crisis and the cost of adjusment policies have hit hardest on the poor in Latin America." This popular proposition is not backedby unequivocal evidence. Income measures of poverty show generally tendencies towards, sometimes, dramatic impoverishment, but direct measures (social indicators) show more or less continued trends of welfare improvement. A first main conclusion of this paper is the relative poverty of poverty measurement in Latin America and the lack of an adequate and analyticalli strutured monitoring system on social progress in most countries. The second main observation is that most studies assessing the impact of macroeconomic inetability and adjustment policies on poverty and inequality generally fail to give convincing explanations and to isolate the policy impact from other factors. This failure of economic research is not merely due to the use of poor data, but as much due to the use of poorly designed research methodologies. With "investment in human capital" becoming the new development paradigm of the 1990s, these conclusions seem to indicate that well-founded social and economic insights of researchers lag well behind tha actions of policiy makers.// "La crisis económica y el costo del ajuste en la América Latina han golpeado en especial a los pobres". La evidencia empírica, tal como es presentada en receintes estudios, no es sin embargo inequívoca; si bien los indicadores de ingreso (medidores indirectos de la pobreza) muestran una alarmeante tendencia a la agudización de la pobreza, los indicadores sociales sugieren un mayor bienestar. En este documento se llega a la conclusión de que se adolece en general de un pobre conocimiento acerca de la pobreza, en particular debido a la falta de bases estadísticas confiables y comparables, y de un sistema estructurado de monitoreo del progreso social. Más aún, influyentes investigadores de la situación social en la América Latina no resultan convincentes en el análisis de lso mecanismos de generación de la pobreza y la desigualdad, ni son capaces de aislar causas de política económica de otros factores. Al ser la "inversión en ca´pital humano" el nuevo paradigma del desarrollo para los noventa, este artículo llama la atención acerca del alaramante retraso de la investigación respecto a las acciones de política económica.

0 Followers
 · 
115 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work is to assess the changes in poverty and inequality that have taken place in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1970 to 1995, with special emphasis on the 1990s. The main distinctive characteristic of the study is that rather than focusing on individual country experiences, as most of the literature on this subject has done, we produce aggregate indicators for the whole region.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 10/1997; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.145368
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: (Disponible en idioma ingl�s �nicamente) El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los cambios en la pobreza y la desigualdad que se produjeron en Am�rica Latina y el Caribe desde 1970 hasta 1995, con especial inter�s en los a�os 90. La caracter�stica m�s distintiva del estudio es que, en vez de concentrarse en las experiencias de pa�ses individuales, tal como ha hecho la mayor parte de la obra publicada sobre el tema, producimos indicadores agregados para toda la regi�n.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work assesses the changes in aggregate poverty and inequality that have taken place in Latin America during the past 26 years. With this objective, we put together the largest number of observations on income distribution for the region for the period from 1970-1995. We find that poverty and inequality have not declined during the 1990s in spite of improvements at the macroeconomic level. The characteristics of our data allow us to perform various comparisons between countries. Our results show that even though there are differences in levels across countries, inequality and poverty in most of them follow similar trends during the period under study.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 02/2000; III(May):93-134. DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1815983