THE IMPACT OF PRICES AND CONTROL POLICIES ON CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS
ABSTRACT Smoking among youths and young adults rose throughout the 1990s. Numerous policies were enacted to try to reverse this trend. However, little is known about the impact these policies have on the smoking behavior of young adults. This article uses a dichotomous indicator of daily smoking participation in the past 30 days, an ordered measure representing the frequency of cigarette consumption, and a quasi-continuous measure of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average to examine the impact of cigarette prices, clean indoor air laws, and campus-level smoking policies on the smoking behaviors of a 1997 cross section of college students. The results of the analysis indicate that higher cigarette prices are associated with lower smoking participation and lower levels of use among college student smokers. Local- and state-level clean indoor air restrictions have a cumulative impact on the level of smoking by current smokers. Complete smoking bans on college campuses are associated with lower levels of smoking among current smokers but have no significant impact on smoking participation. Bans on cigarette advertising on campus as well as bans on the sale of cigarettes on campus have no significant effect on the smoking behavior of college students. Copyright 2001 Western Economic Association International.
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ABSTRACT: This article examines the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free air laws on adult smoking. Probit methods and a generalized linear model with log-link and Gaussian distribution are employed to model adult smoking propensity and intensity, respectively. After controlling for unobserved state-level heterogeneity, which can influence both tobacco policy and smoking behavior, the estimates from this study imply that an inverse relationship exists between cigarette prices and both smoking prevalence and average cigarette consumption by adult smokers. The estimates also imply that more restrictive smoke-free air laws decrease average smoking by adult smokers but have little impact on prevalence. (JEL I18) Copyright 2006, Oxford University Press.Economic Inquiry 02/2006; 44(2):333-342. DOI:10.1093/ei/cbj028 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This chapter surveys the literatures on advertising bans and alcohol consumption or abuse, and advertising expenditures and alcohol consumption. Studies of state-level bans of billboards are examined as well as studies of international bans that cover broadcasting media. For expenditures, the survey concentrates on econometric methods and the existence of an industry advertising-sales response function. Selected results from survey-research studies of advertising and youth alcohol behaviors also are discussed. The chapter concludes that advertising bans do not reduce alcohol consumption or abuse; advertising expenditures do not have a market-wide expansion effect; and survey-research studies of youth behaviors are seriously incomplete as a basis for public policy. Results of the survey are applied to the Supreme Court's Central Hudson test for constitutionality of restrictions on commercial speech.
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ABSTRACT: The 18-24 age group is experiencing a greater increase in smoking prevalence than any other age group in recent years. This article presents a case study of how a California community college successfully implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program to counter pro-tobacco influences, to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke, and to increase the availability of cessation services. The college strengthened the reasonable distance policy by establishing designated smoking areas to the recent adoption of a smoke-free campus. The Student Health Center led the efforts in creating a student coalition, planned advocacy and educational campaigns, developed partnerships with multiple campus departments, implemented an enforcement program, and revised clinical interventions to reflect the US Public Health Service Guidelines. The project was in collaboration with the local health department and two other college campuses. Successful policy change resulted in affecting social norms and a decreased smoking prevalence of 13% in 2000 to 8% in 2004. We encourage other campuses, particularly community colleges, to address tobacco control issues and use some of the strategies presented.