THE IMPACT OF PRICES AND CONTROL POLICIES ON CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS
ABSTRACT Smoking among youths and young adults rose throughout the 1990s. Numerous policies were enacted to try to reverse this trend. However, little is known about the impact these policies have on the smoking behavior of young adults. This article uses a dichotomous indicator of daily smoking participation in the past 30 days, an ordered measure representing the frequency of cigarette consumption, and a quasi-continuous measure of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average to examine the impact of cigarette prices, clean indoor air laws, and campus-level smoking policies on the smoking behaviors of a 1997 cross section of college students. The results of the analysis indicate that higher cigarette prices are associated with lower smoking participation and lower levels of use among college student smokers. Local- and state-level clean indoor air restrictions have a cumulative impact on the level of smoking by current smokers. Complete smoking bans on college campuses are associated with lower levels of smoking among current smokers but have no significant impact on smoking participation. Bans on cigarette advertising on campus as well as bans on the sale of cigarettes on campus have no significant effect on the smoking behavior of college students. Copyright 2001 Western Economic Association International.
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ABSTRACT: As smoking among college students reached new highs in the 1990s, most interventions for college student smoking prevention focused on individual student knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. No published studies report on statewide movements to accelerate the adoption of tobacco-free policies on college campuses. The results of the first 4 years of the North Carolina Tobacco-Free Colleges Initiative are presented. The North Carolina Health and Wellness Trust Fund developed a multilevel intervention to accelerate the diffusion of tobacco-free policies on college campuses, including funding campus coordinators and coalitions to tailor activities to the campus environment at 64 colleges. Evaluators tracked process and policy outcomes as well as the diffusion of policy adoption from January 2006-December 2009. Prior to the initiative, only one small, private college campus in North Carolina was tobacco-free. By 4 years into the initiative, 33 colleges and community colleges, representing more than 159 300 students, have adopted comprehensive tobacco-free policies to protect students, faculty, staff and visitors. Participating campuses also adopted 68 policies restricting smoking in certain areas and limiting industry activity. Tobacco-free policy adoption on college campuses can be accelerated with a multilevel statewide intervention.Tobacco control 08/2010; 19(4):311-7. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recent interest in cigarette smoking among university students has brought attention to problems concerning opinions, attitudes, prevention, health education, policy formulation and implementation. This survey research tested five hypotheses on the views of college students about smoking in school hallways and cafeteria, compliance with anti smoking laws, considering cigarette smoking as an expression of freedom of choice, teachers' smoking in classrooms and in their offices, and school administration's policy on enforcing the law. Hypothesized differences between students' views on the issues according to gender, smoking status and years at school were investigated. Data were obtained from 3,659 students attending six universities in Ankara, Turkey. The study findings provided support for all the hypothesized differences (except a single issue). Males and females differed significantly on all the issues studied. The majority of nonsmoking students have anti-smoking views in regards of the studied issues as compared to regular and occasional smokers. Smokers and nonsmokers markedly disagree on banning cigarette smoking in the cafeteria and hallways. However, the majority of students are against teachers' smoking in classrooms and in their offices with the doors open. Although most students want a smoke free environment, there is no active-anti smoking policy on smoking by universities. Findings point out the need for campus-wide effective smoking prevention programs, as well as cessation programs and services for the students.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 02/2009; 6(1):36-50. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11/2011; 8(11):4118-39. · 2.00 Impact Factor