THE IMPACT OF PRICES AND CONTROL POLICIES ON CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS
ABSTRACT Smoking among youths and young adults rose throughout the 1990s. Numerous policies were enacted to try to reverse this trend. However, little is known about the impact these policies have on the smoking behavior of young adults. This article uses a dichotomous indicator of daily smoking participation in the past 30 days, an ordered measure representing the frequency of cigarette consumption, and a quasi-continuous measure of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average to examine the impact of cigarette prices, clean indoor air laws, and campus-level smoking policies on the smoking behaviors of a 1997 cross section of college students. The results of the analysis indicate that higher cigarette prices are associated with lower smoking participation and lower levels of use among college student smokers. Local- and state-level clean indoor air restrictions have a cumulative impact on the level of smoking by current smokers. Complete smoking bans on college campuses are associated with lower levels of smoking among current smokers but have no significant impact on smoking participation. Bans on cigarette advertising on campus as well as bans on the sale of cigarettes on campus have no significant effect on the smoking behavior of college students. Copyright 2001 Western Economic Association International.
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- "Several econometric studies have also examined the effects of smoke-free air laws on adult smoking behavior. A majority of these studies find an inverse relationship between the implementation of these laws and smoking (Wasserman et al. 1991; Chaloupka 1992; Evans et al. 1999; Ohsfeldt et al. 1999; Czart, et al. 2001; Gallet 2004; Tauras 2006; Yurkeli and Zhang 2000). "
ABSTRACT: Fires and burns are among the leading causes of unintentional death in the USA. Most of these deaths occur in residences, and cigarettes are a primary cause. In this paper, I explore the relationship between smoking, cigarette policies, and fires. As smoking rates decline, there are fewer opportunities for fires; however, the magnitude of any reduction is in question. Using a state-level panel, I find that increases in cigarette prices are associated with fewer residential fires and deaths. However, laws regulating indoor smoking are associated with more fires; in particular, restaurant and bar smoking bans are associated with an increase in fires at eating and drinking establishments. This increase is important given the growing popularity of smoking bans in the USA and around the world. As workplaces, schools, and businesses ban smoking and remove ashtrays, smokers who continue to smoke are left without safe options for disposal of cigarettes, leading to more opportunities for fires to start. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Health Economics 11/2014; 23(11). DOI:10.1002/hec.2990 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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- "Indeed, the 2007 European Tobacco Control Report explicitly criticises lack of retailer compliance as a main obstacle to the effectiveness of youth access laws in EU member countries (WHO, 2007). As a distribution outlet of cigarettes, vending machines are particularly controversial, as they tend to be heavily used by minors, being self-service and mostly under control of neither retailers nor adults. 2 Although arguably the most accessible outlet of tobacco for youths, vending machines have been investigated in but a handful of studies (see Czart et al. (2001), Rigotti et al. (1997), Chaloupka and Grossman (1996), and Forster et al. (1992)). Furthermore, these studies produced only mixed evidence on the effectiveness of restrictions imposed on the use or placement of vending machines in curbing the availability of cigarettes to youths. "
ABSTRACT: Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The effectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides first objective evidence on the outgoing and customer behavior of smokers, we study both outcome dimensions by investigating several recent tobacco control measures in Germany. We find a large negative effect on cigarette sales of a nation-wide introduction of devices for electronic age verification in cigarette vending machines, particularly at machines placed outdoors and in localities that are strongly frequented by youths. In contrast, there is no evidence that a country-wide smoking ban in federal buildings affected cigarette sales in these premises and only weak evidence that a recent rise in the minimum legal smoking age affected cigarette purchases by youths. Finally, state-level smoking bans appear to have reduced indoor sales of cigarettes at vending machines, especially in bars. However, the magnitude of the estimated effect is rather modest, suggesting that businesses in the hospitality industry are unlikely to have been affected severely. Das vorliegende Papier untersucht anhand von Umsatzdaten an Zigarettenautomaten die Wirkungen von vier verschiedenen Maßnahmen zur Kontrolle bzw. Begrenzung des Zigarettenkonsums in Deutschland: die elektronische Alterskennung an Automaten (Januar 2007), die Anhebung des Mindestalters für den Erwerb und Konsum von Zigaretten von 16 auf 18 Jahren (September 2007), das Rauchverbot in Einrichtungen des Bundes (ebenfalls September 2007) sowie Rauchverbote in der Gastronomie auf Länderebene (zwischen August 2007 und Juli 2008). Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen starken Rückgang des Zigarettenabsatzes an Automaten in Folge der Einführung der elektronischen Alterskennung, besonders an Automaten im Außenbereich und in Einrichtungen, die stark von Jugendlichen frequentiert werden. Im Gegensatz findet sich jedoch keine Evidenz dafür, dass das Rauchverbot in Einrichtungen des Bundes zu einem Rückgang des Absatzes an Zigarettenautomaten in diesen Einrichtungen geführt hat. Auch gibt es nur schwache Evidenz für einen Einfluss der Anhebung des Mindestalters auf den Erwerb von Zigaretten durch Jugendliche. Rauchverbote auf Bundeslandebene hingegen haben den Zigarettenabsatz an Automaten im Innenbereich reduziert, besonders in Kneipen. Die moderate Größe dieses Effektes legt jedoch den Schluss nahe, dass Gastronomiebetriebe durch die Rauchverbote keine starken Umsatzeinbußen erfuhren.SSRN Electronic Journal 03/2010; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1593045
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- "Nepal does not have regular systematic data collection for monitoring the trend among college youth unlike in US where, smoking among them increased over time from 1991 to 1997 by 4.9% (Czart et al., 2001). Studies have shown that around one in four college students are smokers in some countries (Czart et al., 2001; Rozi et al., 2007). Thus identification of factors that favour smoking RESEARCH COMMUNICATION "
ABSTRACT: Tobacco is the single largest risk factor for various diseases and its presence in the young heralds more serious problems as they may be exposed for longer periods. Prevalence and predictors of smoking among youth will aid in formulating effective preventive and control measures. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted among 816 students selected from five colleges of Western Nepal using a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of ever smoking was 34.2% (males 47.6% and females 18.4%) and for current smoking was 17%. It was higher among youth belonging to 21 years or older as compared to younger age groups. Mean age of initiation was 16.8 years (standard deviation 2.8 years) and the most common reasons cited for smoking were; like it, to feel more relaxed, out of boredom and to look more mature. Proportion of youth who said they felt they were addicted was 43.1% and 64.7% said that they had tried to quit the habit. Most important predictors having independent effects on youth being ever smokers were having three or more smoker friends (OR=18), their own chewing (OR=4.8) or alcohol use (OR=4.2), male gender (OR=3.7) and the type of course they were pursuing, with professional course students having higher risk. With almost one fifth of college-going youth smoking and a higher prevalence in older age groups within them, smoking is a serious concern for young people in Western Nepal.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2010; 11(1):221-6. · 2.51 Impact Factor