Article

The asymmetric effects of demand shocks: international evidence on determinants and implications

Applied Economics (Impact Factor: 0.46). 07/2010; 42(17):2127-2145. DOI: 10.1080/00036840701765502
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT The analysis focuses on the asymmetric effects of demand shocks. The evidence across a sample of 19 industrial countries differentiates the effects of expansionary and contractionary aggregate demand shocks on real output growth and nominal wage and price inflation. The difference appears consistent with a kinked supply curve that is dependent on the asymmetric flexibility of wages and/or prices across countries. Furthermore, the evidence does not support the endogeneity of asymmetric nominal flexibility with respect to demand variability or trend price inflation across countries. On average, across countries, demand variability increases nominal wage and price inflation relative to deflation, while exacerbating output contraction relative to expansion. The apparent trade-off between changes in real and nominal trends provides further support to the supply side explanation of asymmetry.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Magda Kandil, May 01, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
71 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper uses the historical record to isolate episodes in which there were large monetary disturbances not caused by output fluctuations. It then tests whether these monetary changes have important real effects. The central part of the paper is a study of postwar U.S. monetary history. We identify six episodes in which the Federal Reserve in effect decided to attempt to create a recession to reduce inflation. We find that a shift to anti-inflationary policy led, on average, to a rise in the unemployment rate of two percentage points, and that this effect is highly statistically significant and robust to a variety of changes in specification. We reach three other major conclusions. First, the real effects of these monetary disturbances are highly persistent. Second, the six shocks that we identify account for a considerable fraction of postwar economic fluctuations. And third, evidence from the interwar era also suggests that monetary disturbances have large real effects.
    NBER Macroeconomics Annual 03/1990; DOI:10.2307/3584969
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examine the extent to which exchange rate fluctuations affect the US sectoral output and price. The evidence indicates that the expansionary and contractionary effects cancel out in determining industrial real output growth in the face of exchange rate fluctuations. More importantly, there is evidence of a reduction in price inflation in several industries, which is statistically significant in Finance, in response to dollar appreciation. This evidence is consistent with the reduction in aggregate demand through the decline in net exports and the increase in aggregate supply through the reduction in the cost of imported intermediate goods.
    Journal of International Money and Finance 02/2002; DOI:10.1016/S0261-5606(01)00016-X · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using quarterly data for the United States, the evidence differentiates the effects of expansionary and contractionary shocks to government spending around an anticipated steady-state trend over time. While interest rates increase in the face of expansionary government spending shocks, there is no evidence of a reduction in the face of contractionary shocks. Consequently, the increased government spending crowds out private investment. Moreover, there is evidence of a reduction in private consumption as agents anticipate a future increase in taxes to finance the increased government spending. As a result, output growth and price inflation are decreasing despite expansionary government spending shocks, on average, over time. In view of this evidence, public finance considerations ought to dominate attempts to stimulate demand using government spending near full-equilibrium capacity utilization in the economy. In contrast, contractionary government spending shocks are not offset by an increase in private spending. Hence, demand contraction is pronounced, slowing output growth and price inflation in the face of a reduction in government spending. The implication is that concerns over the pronounced contractionary effects of a reduction in government spending ought to dominate public finance considerations near full-equilibrium.
    The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 06/2001; DOI:10.1016/S1062-9769(00)00066-1