Internationalization of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) and International Entrepreneurship: A Critique and Policy Implications

Regional Studies (Impact Factor: 1.76). 10/2007; 41(7):1013-1030. DOI: 10.1080/00343400601120288
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ABSTRACT Wright M., Westhead P. and Ucbasaran D. (2007) Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and international entrepreneurship: a critique and policy implications, Regional Studies 41, 1013-1029. Practitioners are seeking to provide a supportive environment for growing ventures. An important policy challenge is the provision of support for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) seeking to internationalize. To guide practitioner resource allocation decisions, recent conceptual and empirical developments relating to SME internationalization are discussed. An international entrepreneurship perspective is presented as a counterpoint to the established internationalization perspectives, which may have guided practitioner understanding of the aspirations and needs of SMEs. The emerging international entrepreneurship perspective relating to SME internationalization is critically reviewed with regard to the following seven themes: the timing of internationalization; the intensity and sustainability of internationalization; the mode of internationalization; the influence of the domestic environmental context on internationalization; the leveraging of external resources to internationalize; the unit of analysis (i.e. the firm or the entrepreneur); and the effect of internationalization on SME performance. Assuming an interventionist stance, a case for more balanced policy support towards SME internationalization is suggested that takes into account the diversity of SMEs (and entrepreneurs) that operate, or are capable of operating, in foreign markets. Implications for policy and researchers are presented. Wright M., Westhead P. et Ucbasaran D. (2007) L'internationalisation des Pme et l'esprit d'entreprise international: une critique et des implications pour la politique, Regional Studies 41, 1013-1029. Les praticiens cherchent a fournir un milieu qui risque de soutenir des entreprises naissantes. Un defi important pour la politique c'est de soutenir les petites et moyennes entreprises (Pme) a vocation internationale. Afin d'influencer la prise de decision quant a l'octroi des ressources par les praticiens, on discute des recents developpements conceptuels et empiriques qui se rapportent a l'internationalisation des Pme. On presente un point de vue qui porte sur l'esprit d'entreprise international comme contrepoint aux idees recues sur l'internationalisation, qui a pu influencer la comprehension des praticiens quant aux esperances et aux besoins des Pme. On fait la critique du point de vue naissant sur l'esprit d'entreprise international qui se rapporte a l'internationalisation des Pme a partir des sept questions suivantes: le moment choisi pour s'internationaliser; une internationalisation intense et durable; le mode d'internationalisation; l'influence du milieu interieur sur l'internationalisation; comment trouver des ressources externes afin de s'internationaliser; l'unite a analyser (a savoir, l'entreprise ou l'entrepreneur); et l'impact de l'internationalisation sur la performance des Pme. En adoptant une position interventionniste, on donne des arguments en faveur d'un soutien plus equilibre a l'egard de l'internationalisation des Pme et qui tient compte de la diversite des Pme (et des entrepreneurs) qui fonctionnent, ou qui sont capables de fonctionner, sur des marches exterieurs. On en presente les implications pour la politique et les chercheurs. Internationalisation Petites et moyennes entreprises (Pme) Implications pour la politique Wright M., Westhead P. und Ucbasaran D. (2007) Die Internationalisierung von KMU und internationales Unternehmertum: Kritik und Konsequenzen fur die Politik, Regional Studies 41, 1013-1029. Zur Unterstutzung expandierender Betriebe stehen spezielle Fachkrafte zur Verfugung. Hinsichtlich des politischen Umfelds gibt es bedeutsame Herausforderungen bei der Unterstutzung von kleinen und mittelstandischen Unternehmen (KMU), die ins Ausland expandieren mochten. Um den Fachkraften die Entscheidungen hinsichtlich der Zuweisung von Ressourcen zu erleichtern, werden die jungsten konzeptuellen und empirischen Entwicklungen bei dieser Internationalisierung von KMU erortert. Als Gegenpunkt zu den etablierten Perspektiven der Internationalisierung, an denen sich die Fachkrafte zum Verstandnis der Ziele und Bedurfnisse der KMU eventuell orientieren, wird eine internationale Perspektive des Unternehmertums vorgestellt. Die neu entstehende internationale Perspektive des Unternehmertums wird in Bezug auf die Internationalisierung der KMU hinsichtlich der folgenden sieben Themen kritisch hinterfragt: Zeitpunkt der Internationalisierung, Intensitat und Nachhaltigkeit der Internationalisierung, Art der Internationalisierung, Einfluss des einheimischen Umfeldkontextes auf die Internationalisierung, Nutzung externer Ressourcen zur Internationalisierung, Einheit der Analyse (Firma oder Unternehmer) sowie Auswirkung der Internationalisierung auf die Leistung der KMU. Im Rahmen eines interventionistischen Ansatzes wird fur eine ausgeglichenere politische Unterstutzung der Internationalisierung von KMU pladiert, bei der die Diversitat der KMU (und Unternehmer) berucksichtigt wird, die im Ausland tatig sind bzw. sein konnten. Ebenso erortert werden die Konsequenzen fur Politik und Forschung. Internationalisierung Kleine und mittelstandische Unternehmen (KMU) Konsequenzen fur Politik Wright M., Westhead P. y Ucbasaran D. (2007) La internacionalizacion de las pymes y el empresariado internacional: critica e implicaciones politicas, Regional Studies 41, 1013-1029. Los interesados quieren aportar un ambiente de apoyo a las sociedades en crecimiento. Un reto importante en las politicas es la dotacion de apoyo a las pequenas y medianas empresas (pymes) que quieren internacionalizarse. Para ayudar a los interesados a tomar decisiones sobre como distribuir sus recursos, se discuten los avances recientes, conceptuales y empiricos para que las pymes puedan alcanzar un nivel internacional. Presentamos una perspectiva internacional de interes empresarial como un contrapunto a las ideas sobre internacionalizacion establecidas que posiblemente influenciaban a los interesados a la hora de entender cuales son las aspiraciones y necesidades de las pymes. Para ellos revisamos aqui detalladamente la nueva perspectiva internacional de caracter empresarial sobre la internacionalizacion de las pymes con respecto a las siguientes siete cuestiones: el periodo de tiempo de la internacionalizacion; la intensidad y sostenibilidad de la internacionalizacion; el modo de internacionalizacion; la influencia del contexto del ambiente nacional sobre la internacionalizacion; la influencia de los recursos externos para la internacionalizacion; la unidad de analisis (es decir, la empresa o el empresario); y el efecto de la internacionalizacion sobre el rendimiento de las pymes. Suponiendo una postura intervencionista, abogamos por un apoyo mas equilibrado de politicas hacia la internacionalizacion de las pymes que tenga en consideracion la diversidad de las pymes (y los empresarios) que operen o sean capaces de operar en mercados extranjeros. Tambien presentamos las implicaciones para las politicas e investigaciones. Internacionalizacion Pequenas y medianas empresas (pymes) Implicaciones politicas

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