Poverty among older people in Latin America and the Caribbean
ABSTRACT This paper provides evidence on the incidence of poverty among older people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), based on household survey microdata from 20 countries. The situation of older people is characterised in terms of income, education, health and access to services vis-à-vis the rest of the population. The paper identifies the role played by the current pension systems in LAC, and assesses the efforts needed to achieve substantial improvements towards the reduction of old age poverty. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: The Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) database on which this article is based offers researchers exciting new possibilities for international comparisons based on household income microdata. Among the choices the LIS microdata allows a researcher, e.g. income definition, income accounting unit, etc., is the choice of family equivalence scale, a method for estimating economic well-being by adjusting income for measurable differences in need.The range of potential equivalence scales that can and are being used in the ten LIS countries and elsewhere to adjust incomes for size and related differences in need span a wide spectrum. The purpose of this paper is to review the available equivalence scales and to test the sensitivity of various income inequality and poverty measures to choice of equivalence scale using the LIS database. The results of our analysis indicate that choice of equivalence scale can sometimes systematically affect absolute and relative levels of poverty; and inequality and therefore rankings of countries (or population subgroups within countries). Because of these sensitivities, one must carefully consider summary statements and policy implications derived from cross-national comparisons of poverty and/or inequality.Review of Income and Wealth 05/1988; 34(2):115 - 142. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The living arrangements of older people are usually an important determinant of their quality of life. They are particularly significant for poor elders in the developing world, where formal welfare systems are less extensive. Policy debates in developing countries often allege that extended families and cultural mores of respect for elders have been more resilient than in the West (Contreras de Lehr, 1989). However, it is likely that rapid processes of social and economic transformation have had important impacts on household structures and on the positions of elders within them. To date, these issues remain very lightly researched, and empirical data are scant. The present paper provides some insights from a number of microlevel studies of poor communities in Buenos Aires and São Paulo. The paper briefly explores a number of related issues. First, it considers the extent to which shanty town districts in the cities studied are currently experiencing population ageing, and how much they will do so in the future. This touches on a larger theme: whether population ageing in middle-income countries is largely a phenomenon of relatively privileged groups, or whether the poor are also surviving extended periods of old age. This issue has important implications for equity and policy, but has been largely ignored. The paper goes on to consider how the living arrangements of elderly shanty town residents may differ from those of other groups of older people. This includes the sizes of households containing older people, the economic relations between older people and other household members, and patterns of homeownership.