Article

¿Ineficiencia o diferencias tecnológicas en el sector lechero?

Revista de Economia Aplicada (Impact Factor: 0.09). 01/2008; 16(3):69-88.
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT La estimación de funciones de producción suele basarse en el supuesto de que la tecnología es común para todos los productores. Sin embargo, en la muestra puede haber empresas que usen tecnologías diferentes. En este trabajo se emplea un modelo de clases latentes para estimar la tecnología de varios sistemas de producción de explotaciones lecheras según su grado de intensificación. Los resultados de esta estimación se comparan con los obtenidos usando otras dos aproximaciones. Una, el modelo clásico de frontera estocástica. La otra consiste en dividir la muestra mediante un análisis cluster y estimar una frontera de producción distinta para cada uno de los grupos. El análisis empírico se realiza con un panel completo compuesto por 169 explotaciones lecheras asturianas para el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004.

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    ABSTRACT: Determining the competitive position of dairy farms depends on several technological, economic and institutional variables. Among them, are remarkable those related to animal feeding in the current context of high variability on prices. In this context, the aim of our study is to analyze the effects on milk supply and the competitiveness of dairy farms with different models of land intensification, with greater reliance on market purchases or self production of livestock feed. Our work is based on an econometric approach to a variable cost function, in a fixed effects model for unbalanced panel data of specialized dairy farms in Navarre (Spain). From this region, we use 3 geographical areas in relation to the availability of grazing land. It has been tested the absence of sample selection bias and satisfaction of regularity conditions. The study shows a flexible milk farm supply with respect to the price of milk and very dependent on the evolution of feed prices. This aspect has been emphasized by the restructuring of farms, characterized by strong size increases and productivity gains based on a greater reliance on purchases of animal feed. The provision of grazing land has an important role in determining the average costs and farm profitability. In addition, grazing land use permits greater exploitation of economies of scale present in the dairy sector.