Timing of retirement and mortality - A cohort study of Swedish construction workers
ABSTRACT Recent studies indicate that early retirement per se may have a negative effect on health to such an extent that it increases mortality risk. One type of early retirement often referred to in these studies is retirement with disability pension/benefit. Given the overall objective of disability benefit programmes - to help the disabled live socially and economically satisfactory lives, freed from exposure to employment health hazards and thus avoid further declines in health - the finding is challenging. This paper examined the relationship between timing of retirement and mortality using a cohort of Swedish construction workers. The mortality risk of disability pensioners - excluding those with diagnoses normally connected to increased mortality - was compared with the risk of those continuing to work. Although initial indications were in line with earlier results, it became obvious that the increased mortality risk of disability pensioners did not depend on early retirement per se but on poor health before early retirement not explicitly recognized in the diagnosis on which the disability pension rested. The results indicate that there are no general differences in mortality depending on timing of retirement. Future studies of mortality differences arising from working or not working must sufficiently control for health selection effects into the studied retirement paths.
SourceAvailable from: Kerstin Nilsson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In most of the industrialised world, the proportion of older and retired people in the population is continuously increasing. This will have budgetary implications for maintaining the welfare state, because the active working section of the population must fund the non-active and old population. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain knowledge about older workers’ work and life situation in association with their planning and decision to retire from working life. Method: The thesis includes one qualitative and three quantitative studies conducted in Sweden. Result: Self-rated health was found to be a better measure than diagnosed disease of whether older workers believed they could work until 65 years or beyond. Health seems not to be a general impediment to working in old age if older workers are satisfied with their work situation and have enough time and opportunities to recover from fatigue. In one of Sweden’s most hazardous work environments, older workers were not injured significantly more often than younger workers. Good mental and physical work environment, moderate working pace and working time, and the right competence and possibility for skills development were factors determining whether older workers believed they can extend their working life. Attitude to older workers in the organisation, motivation and work satisfaction were factors determining whether older workers want to extend working life. Health, personal economic incentives, family/leisure pursuits and attitude to pension in society affected both whether people believed they can and wanted to extend their working life. In their final retirement decision, older workers considered: i) their possibility to balance and adapt functional ageing and health to a sustainable work situation; ii) their economic situation; iii) possibilities for social inclusion and coherence; and iv) possibilities for meaningful activities. Whether these requirements were best fulfilled in or outside working life determined the decision to continue working or to retire. 10 Conclusion: If it is desirable for society that people will to extend their working life, both the “can work” and the “want to work” factors need to be met. It is important to provide a good fit inside working life. This requires a focus not only on older workers, but also on organisations and managers in order to provide incentives that keep older workers in the work force.01/2013, Degree: PhD
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to highlight cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees attending a primary care clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted from Januaryto February 2013 at Primary Care Clinics of King Khalid University Hospital and College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All retired attendees were interviewed by family physician, and their duration of retirement was determined. Their cardiovascular risk factors were confirmed from their medical records. The cardiovascular risk factors included history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and smoking. Their weight and height were recorded during the consultation and Body Mass Index was calculated to decide about those classified as obesity ≥ 30 All data were entered and analyzed using statistical package of social science SPSS version 17 software. Results: The present study showed that 19.5% of retired attendees presenting at primary care clinic were early retired before the age of 60 years, while 80.5% were normally retired. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors showed: Hypertension among 73% attendees, Diabetes Mellitus in 67%, dyslipidemia in 71%, Obesity 29%, and Smoking 13% of the patients. Conclusion:This study concluded that cardiovascular risk factors among retired attendees of a primary care clinic are common, and need to be taken in to priority consideration while improving the health care of retired people.Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online 05/2014; 30(3):515-8. DOI:10.12669/pjms.303.4269 · 0.10 Impact Factor