Article

Identification of Sandhoff disease in a Thai family: clinical and biochemical characterization.

Department of Pediatrics, Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 09/2010; 93(9):1088-92.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sandhoff disease is a GM2 gangliosidosis that is rare in Thailand. The authors report a Thai family with two children known to have infantile form of Sandhoff disease. The index case exhibited mitral valve prolapse with mitral regurgitation as an early sign, which is a rare presentation in Sandhoff disease. Thereafter the patient had developmental regression, startle reaction, and cherry red spots. The diagnosis was confirmed by biochemical analysis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
114 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hydrolysis of GM2-ganglioside is unusual in its requirements for the correct synthesis, processing, and ultimate combination of three gene products. Whereas two of these proteins are the alpha- (HEXA gene) and beta- (HEXB) subunits of beta-hexosaminidase A, the third is a small glycolipid transport protein, the GM2 activator protein (GM2A), which acts as a substrate specific co-factor for the enzyme. A deficiency of any one of these proteins leads to storage of the ganglioside, primarily in the lysosomes of neuronal cells, and one of the three forms of GM2-gangliosidosis, Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease or the AB-variant form. Studies of the biochemical impact of naturally occurring mutations associated with the GM2 gangliosidoses on mRNA splicing and stability, and on the intracellular transport and stability of the affected protein have provided some general insights into these complex cellular mechanisms. However, such studies have revealed little in the way of structure-function information on the proteins. It appears that the detrimental effect of most mutations is not specifically on functional elements of the protein, but rather on the proteins' overall folding and/or intracellular transport. The few exceptions to this generalization are missense mutations at two codons in HEXA, causing the unique biochemical phenotype known as the B1-variant, and one codon in both the HEXB and GM2A genes. Biochemical characterization of these mutations has led to the localization of functional residues and/or domains within each of the encoded proteins.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/1999; 1455(2-3):105-38. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by deficiency of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase resulting in GM2 ganglioside accumulation in brain. The purpose of this study was to delineate the natural history of the condition and identify genotype-phenotype correlations that might be helpful in predicting the course of the disease in individual patients. A cohort of 21 patients with juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis, 15 with the Tay-Sachs variant and 6 with the Sandhoff variant, was studied prospectively in 2 centers. Our experience was compared with previously published reports on 134 patients. Information about clinical features, beta-hexosaminidase enzyme activity, and mutation analysis was collected. In our cohort of patients, the mean (+/-SD) age of onset of symptoms was 5.3 +/- 4.1 years, with a mean follow-up time of 8.4 years. The most common symptoms at onset were gait disturbances (66.7%), incoordination (52.4%), speech problems (28.6%), and developmental delay (28.6%). The age of onset of gait disturbances was 7.1 +/- 5.6 years. The mean time for progression to becoming wheelchair-bound was 6.2 +/- 5.5 years. The mean age of onset of speech problems was 7.0 +/- 5.6 years, with a mean time of progression to anarthria of 5.6 +/- 5.3 years. Muscle wasting (10.6 +/- 7.4 years), proximal weakness (11.1 +/- 7.7 years), and incontinence of sphincters (14.6 +/- 9.7 years) appeared later in the course of the disease. Psychiatric disturbances and neuropathy were more prevalent in patients with the Sandhoff variant than in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. However, dysphagia, sphincter incontinence, and sleep problems occurred earlier in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. Cerebellar atrophy was the most common finding on brain MRI (52.9%). The median survival time among the studied and reviewed patients was 14.5 years. The genotype-phenotype correlation revealed that in patients with the Tay-Sachs variant, the presence of R178H and R499H mutations was predictive of an early onset and rapidly progressive course. The presence of either G269S or W474C mutations was associated with a later onset of symptoms along with a more slowly progressive disease course. Juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis is clinically heterogeneous, not only in terms of age of onset and clinical features but also with regard to the course of the disease. In general, the earlier the onset of symptoms, the more rapidly the disease progresses. The Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff variants differed somewhat in the frequency of specific clinical characteristics. Speech deterioration progressed more rapidly than gait abnormalities in both the Tay-Sachs variant and Sandhoff variant groups. Among patients with the Tay-Sachs variant, the HEXA genotype showed a significant correlation with the clinical course.
    PEDIATRICS 12/2006; 118(5):e1550-62. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sandhoff disease is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease presenting bilateral optic atrophy and a cherry red spot in the macula. This case report presents the characteristics of a patient with Sandhoff disease as assessed by ophthalmic, neuroimaging, and laboratory procedures. Ophthalmologic examination revealed that the patient could not fixate her eyes on objects nor follow moving targets. A pale optic disc and a cherry red spot in the macula were seen in both eyes. Low signal intensity at the thalamus and high signal intensity at the cerebral white matter were noted in a T2-weighted brain MR image. A lysosomal enzyme assay using fibroblasts showed the marked reduction of both total beta-hexosaminidases, A and B. Based on the above clinical manifestations and laboratory findings, we diagnosed the patient as having Sandhoff disease.
    Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 04/2005; 19(1):68-72.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
1 Download
Available from