Gender Unemployment Gaps: Evidence from the New EU Member States

SSRN Electronic Journal 01/2010; DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.1653313
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT Using EU LFS data, we analyze gender unemployment gaps in eight new EU member states – the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, the three Baltic states and Slovenia – over the last decade. While there are substantial unemployment gaps in the four central European countries and, more recently, also in Slovenia, there is no statistical difference between female and male unemployment rates in the three Baltic states. The estimated cost of having children, in terms of the higher probability of unemployment and lower unemployment to employment transition rate, is the highest in countries with the longest and most substantial drop in the labor force participation of women after childbirth. We show that country differences in family leave policies can explain much of the cross-country variation in the gender unemployment gaps.

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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the implication of recent results on the structure of gender wage gaps in transition economies for the literature on gender segregation. Differences in employment rates of low-wage women driven by initial transition policies may be responsible for different wage penalties to predominantly female occupations. New evidence presented here also suggests that the introduction of Western-type anti-discrimination policies has had little immediate effect on the structure of female-male wage differences. (JEL: J3, J7, P3) Copyright (c) 2005 The European Economic Association.
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    ABSTRACT: The labour market status of many nonworking persons is at the boundary between unemployment and inactivity. Like the unemployed, they seek and are available for work; unlike them, their last search action was not recent enough to meet the International Labour Office definition of unemployment. In this paper we examine by nonparametric tests how the transition probabilities of these out-of-the-labour-force job seekers differ from those of the unemployed as well as the other nonparticipants. First, using data from the European Community Household Panel, we show that in most EU countries these job seekers constitute a distinct labour market state. Second, we rely on information available only in the Italian Labour Force Survey to derive a measure of search intensity that we use to break down the out-of-the-labour-force job seekers. On the basis of their transition probabilities, the most active are indistinguishable from the unemployed. (JEL: J64, J22, R23) Copyright (c) 2006 by the European Economic Association.
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