Family Ties and Political Participation

Journal of the European Economic Association (Impact Factor: 1.36). 10/2009; 9(4150). DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.1397173
Source: RePEc


This paper provides a survey on studies that analyze the macroeconomic effects of intellectual property rights (IPR). The first part of this paper introduces different patent policy instruments and reviews their effects on R&D and economic growth. This part also discusses the distortionary effects and distributional consequences of IPR protection as well as empirical evidence on the effects of patent rights. Then, the second part considers the international aspects of IPR protection. In summary, this paper draws the following conclusions from the literature. Firstly, different patent policy instruments have different effects on R&D and growth. Secondly, there is empirical evidence supporting a positive relationship between IPR protection and innovation, but the evidence is stronger for developed countries than for developing countries. Thirdly, the optimal level of IPR protection should tradeoff the social benefits of enhanced innovation against the social costs of multiple distortions and income inequality. Finally, in an open economy, achieving the globally optimal level of protection requires an international coordination (rather than the harmonization) of IPR protection.

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    • "Giuliano (2007) finds that living arrangements of young individuals in the US follow the patterns observed in their ancestors' countries. Alesina and Giuliano (2011) show that political participations of immigrants in 32 destination countries depend on the strength of family ties in their origin countries. In a different context, Fisman and Miguel (2007) show that the propensity of UN diplomats to commit parking violations in New York depends positively on the corruption levels of their countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the role of culture in explaining economic outcomes at individual level analyzing how cultural values from the home country affect the decision to work of immigrants in Italy, using the National Survey of Households with Immigrants. Following the “epidemiological approach”, we relate the probability of being employed in Italy for immigrant women with the female labor force participation (LFP) in their country of origin, taken as a proxy of cultural heritage and gender role model. Controlling for a number of individual and household characteristics, we show that participation in the labor market is affected both by the culture of females' and by their husband's origin countries. We also show that the relationship between own decisions in the host country and home country LFP cannot be attributed to human capital quality or discrimination and it turns out to be stronger for immigrants that maintained more intense ties with their origin countries. Finally, we investigate to what extent cultural influence is driven by religious beliefs: we find that religion is a key determinant of differences in female labor decisions, but, besides religion, other cultural values exert additional influence.
    GSP 2015 (PopDays 2015), Palermo; 01/2015
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    • "Others view integration as civic, social, and political engagement (Handy and Greenspan 2009). Several factors have been found to impede or accelerate an immigrant's integration into his/her host county, such as language fluency, family ties (Alesina and Giuliano 2009), voluntary participation in religious congregations (Sinha et al. 2009), and access to information (Caidi and Allard 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Participation in voluntary associations is an important part of an immigrant’s integration into a host country. This study examines factors that predispose an immigrant’s voluntary involvement in religious and secular organizations compared to non-immigrants (“natives”) in Canada, and how immigrants differ from natives in their voluntary participation. The study results indicate that informal social networks, religious attendance, and level of education positively correlate with the propensity of both immigrants and natives to participate and volunteer in religious and secular organizations. Immigrants who have diverse bridging social networks, speak French and/or English at home, and either attend school or are retired are more likely to participate and volunteer for secular organizations. Further, social trust matters to native Canadians in their decision to engage in religious and secular organizations but not to immigrants. Pride and a sense of belonging, marital status, and the number of children increase the likelihood of secular voluntary participation of natives but not of immigrants. These findings extend the current understanding of immigrant integration and have important implications for volunteer recruitment.
    International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 12/2013; 25(6). DOI:10.1007/s11266-013-9428-8 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    • "It can result in the relative isolation of entrepreneurs, preventing them from receiving business information and counseling from nonfamily members, who may provide different and unique perspectives. Research has also shown that a high level of family embeddedness for individuals is associated with greater trust in their families and lower levels of generalized trust (i.e., outside the family), creating an " amoral familism " in extreme cases (Alesina & Giuliano, 2009; Banfield, 1958; Chai & Rhee, 2010; Putnam, 2000). The perceived division between family and nonfamily can produce distrust, underappreciation, or even dismissal of advice given by nonfamily ties (Nordqvist, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Family ties are an important conduit of resources for entrepreneurs, but both positive and negative outcomes can arise. Building upon a family embeddedness perspective, we develop hypotheses about curvilinear relationships between the proportion of family ties in entrepreneurs' networks and venture growth. We test them on entrepreneurs from China, France, Russia, and the United States. These effects appear to be related to the type of entrepreneurs' social network (business advice, emotional support, and business resources). Our results confirm effects specific to each network: an inverted U-shape for advice and emotional support networks but a U-shape for the business resource network, measuring what proportion of kin in each entrepreneurial network type is valuable to or, conversely, undermines new venture growth.
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