Ship Inspection Strategies: Effects on Maritime Safety and Environmental Protection

Transportation Research Part D Transport and Environment (Impact Factor: 1.94). 01/2010; 16(EI 2010-33). DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2010.07.006
Source: RePEc


Global trade depends for a large part on maritime transport, and safe ships are needed not only to protect precious cargo but also to prevent environmental damage. Flag state and port state authorities spend much effort in ship safety inspections to ensure a minimum safety level and to prevent casualties. This paper investigates the safety gains of current inspection rules as well as options for further improvement. The analysis is based on a dataset of over four hundred thousand ship arrivals originating from some important trading nations between 2002 and 2007, complemented with data on port state control and industry inspections and casualties. The results indicate considerable potential safety gains of incorporating estimated future casualty risks more explicitly in port state control strategies to select ships for safety inspection.

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    • "Recent researches on the shipping safety assessment and risk control have addressed various facets of, and approaches to, the problems. Most notably, accident statistics have been used to present collision models (Kujala et al., 2009), ship security monitoring systems have been designed through simulations (Lee et al., 2004), and human factors including supervision and ship safety culture have been investigated (Heij et al., 2011; Hetherington et al., 2006; Lu and Tsai, 2008). Modeling methods for the assessment of safety and risk at sea for individual ships have been developed (Balmat et al., 2009; Wang, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The shipping routes of the South China Sea (SCS) are of major significance in global trade and global economy. However, the shipping routes of the SCS are frequently threatened by both natural and manmade factors, such as complex submarine topography, extreme weather, and piracy. Previous studies of shipping safety in the SCS mainly focused on the individual ship safety and broader political policies. For this study, we applied spatial analysis to assess shipping safety along shipping routes. First, we extracted the main shipping routes from spatial analysis of the Voluntary Observing Ships data. Then, we used a qualitative review to choose influencing factors on ship safety in the SCS, for which data were available over a comparable time period. Further, annual and four seasonal criteria systems were developed. After factor normalization and mapping, the annual and seasonal navigation environment risk was evaluated along the shipping routes using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and geographic information science, and validated by comparison to actual incident reports. Our study shows that (1) the proposed method is a reasonable method of evaluation of navigation environment risk, at least in the SCS; (2) the majority of the shipping routes run from southwest to northeast, reflecting a linear-direction trend; (3) the risk of navigation environment in the SCS gradually decreases from the north to the south with a V-shape spatial distribution, and varies seasonally; and (4) in terms of shipping risk the four seasons are sorted in an ascending order: spring, winter, summer, and autumn.
    Safety Science 02/2014; 62:46–57. DOI:10.1016/j.ssci.2013.08.002 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    • "There has been a change of emphasis over time in the focus of these agencies, with current attention being on environmental sustainability management. For example, the MARPOL now deals with the prevention of pollution Green performance criteria from oil chemicals and other hazardous substances, ballast water treatment, a reduction in the use of harmful paints, a reduction in emissions from ships, and ship recycling (Heij et al., 2011). Previous research had suggested various measurement indicators of a port's green performance, but these have not changed significantly over the last two decades. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure a port's green performance. The literature is reviewed and a survey is carried out to identify major green port performance indicators and to evaluate three major ports' overall green performance in Asia. Indicators located in the critical quadrants with a high degree of importance and low degree of performance are identified and resources are suggested that can be employed to improve the ports' overall sustainability performance effectively. Design/methodology/approach – Port performance indicators are reviewed to select the green-related ones by a session of brain storming with academicians from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan in the shipping discipline. Selected indicators are used to design an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) questionnaire. The weight and degree of performance of each of the 17 green indicators among three major container ports are calculated by the data obtained from the AHP round survey respondents. Findings – Avoiding pollutants during cargo handling and port maintenance, noise control, and sewage treatment were perceived to be the three critical indicators by respondents in two of the three ports investigated. Among the three investigated ports, Shanghai port had the highest number of critical indicators to be improved. Air pollutants avoidance, encouraging the use of low-sulphur fuel, and using electrically powered equipment were three of the five critical indicators found in Shanghai port, but not in the other two investigated ports in this study. Originality/value – The theoretical implications of this research are the development of a conceptual framework to measure the degree of importance of a set of green port performance indicators, and to provide a decision support system to help port authorities to evaluate their performance regarding the 17 green port performance indicators compared with that of other ports.
    International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 06/2013; 43(5-6-5):427-451. DOI:10.1108/IJPDLM-04-2012-0134 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Flag and port authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. Based on the analysis of large failure databases, both Cariou, Mejia, and Wolff (2008) and Heij, Bijwaard, and Knapp (2011) incorporated quantitative risk analysis to ship inspection so as to improve its effectiveness. The studies revealed that the age of the vessel, ship type, and flag of registry appear to be significant predictors. "

    Maritime Policy & Management 01/2013; 40(3):261–277. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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