[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linear chromosomes are stabilized by telomeres, but the presence of short dysfunctional telomeres triggers cellular senescence in human somatic tissues, thus contributing to ageing. Approximately 1% of the population inherits a chromosomally integrated copy of human herpesvirus 6 (CI-HHV-6), but the consequences of integration for the virus and for the telomere with the insertion are unknown. Here we show that the telomere on the distal end of the integrated virus is frequently the shortest measured in somatic cells but not the germline. The telomere carrying the CI-HHV-6 is also prone to truncations that result in the formation of a short telomere at a novel location within the viral genome. We detected extra-chromosomal circular HHV-6 molecules, some surprisingly comprising the entire viral genome with a single fully reconstituted direct repeat region (DR) with both terminal cleavage and packaging elements (PAC1 and PAC2). Truncated CI-HHV-6 and extra-chromosomal circular molecules are likely reciprocal products that arise through excision of a telomere-loop (t-loop) formed within the CI-HHV-6 genome. In summary, we show that the CI-HHV-6 genome disrupts stability of the associated telomere and this facilitates the release of viral sequences as circular molecules, some of which have the potential to become fully functioning viruses.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is the causative agent of roseola infantum. HHV-6A and 6B can reactivate in immunosuppressed individuals and are linked with severe inflammatory response, organ rejection and central nervous system diseases. About 0.85% of the US and UK population carries an integrated HHV-6 genome in all nucleated cells through germline transmission. We have previously reported that the HHV-6A genome integrated in telomeres of patients suffering from neurological dysfunction and also in telomeres of tissue culture cells. We now report that HHV-6B also integrates in telomeres during latency. Detailed mapping of the integrated viral genomes demonstrates that a single HHV-6 genome integrates and telomere repeats join the left end of the integrated viral genome. When HEK-293 cells carrying integrated HHV-6A were exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A, circularization and/or formation of concatamers were detected and this assay could be used to distinguish between lytic replication and latency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) antigens are commonly found in the intestinal mucosa of patients with immunosuppression. In a series of immunocompetent patients with adenomatous, polyp HHV-6B antigen expression from mucosal biopsies was more intense than in biopsies taken from patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs because of kidney transplantation or inflammatory bowel disease. Methods. HHV-6B and cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen expression was determined from mucosal biopsy samples by immunohistochemistry. HHV-6-DNA content was studied in adenomatous polyps (seven tubular adenomas and one tubulovillous adenoma) taken from eight immunocompetent patients and in three mucosal biopsy samples taken from immunocompetent patients without adenomas using in situ hybridization (ISH) method. Results. HHV-6B antigen expression on mucosal biopsies was strongly positive in five of eight patients with adenomas and negative in all patients without adenoma. CMV antigen expression on mucosal biopsies was faintly positive in three of adenoma patients. HHV-6 ISH was positive in seven of eight adenomatous polyps, most intense in the tubulovillous adenoma and negative in all three mucosal biopsies of patients without adenomas. Conclusion. Intensive HHV-6-DNA expression was found in adenomatous polyps of the colon. Further studies on involvement of HHV-6 in the development of gastrointestinal polyps are warranted.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 10/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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