Elucidation of the decomposition pathways of protonated and deprotonated estrone ions: application to the identification of photolysis products.
ABSTRACT With the future aim of elucidating the unknown structures of estrogen degradation products, we characterized the dissociation pathways of protonated estrone (E1) under collisional activation in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) experiments employing a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Positive ion and negative ion modes give information on the protonated and deprotonated molecules and their product ions. The mass spectra of estrone methyl ether (CH(3)-E1) and estrone-d(4) (E1-d(4)) were compared with that of E1 in order (i) to elucidate the dissociation mechanisms of protonated and deprotonated molecules and (ii) to propose likely structures for each product ions. The positive ion acquisition mode yielded more fragmentation. The mass spectra of E1 were compared with those of estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and 17-ethynylestradiol (EE2). This comparison allowed the identification of marker ions for each ring of the estrogenic structure. Accurate mass measurements have been carried out for all the identified ions. The resulting ions revealed to be useful for the characterization of structural modifications induced by photolysis on each ring of the estrone molecule. These results are very promising for the determination of new metabolites in the environment.
Article: Identification and ecotoxicity of degradation products of chloroacetamide herbicides from UV-treatment of water.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The widespread occurrence of chlorinated herbicides and their degradation products in the aquatic environment raises health and environmental concerns. As a consequence pesticides, and to a lesser degree their degradation products, are monitored by authorities both in surface waters and drinking waters. In this study the formation of degradation products from ultraviolet (UV) treatment of the three chloroacetamide herbicides acetochlor, alachlor and metolachlor and their biological effects were investigated. UV treatment is mainly used for disinfection in water and wastewater treatments. First, the chemical structures of the main UV-degradation products were identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main transformation reactions were dechlorination, mono- and multi-hydroxylation and cyclizations. The ecotoxicity of the mixed photoproducts formed by UV-treatment until 90% of the original pesticide was converted was compared to the toxicity of chloroacetamides using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri as test organisms. UV-treatment of alachlor and metolachlor increased the toxicity compared to the parent compounds while an equal toxicity was found for photolysis products of acetochlor. This suggests that toxic photodegradation products are generated from chloroacetamides under UV-treatment. An important perspective of this finding is that the photolysis products are at least as toxic as the parent compounds.Science of The Total Environment 08/2013; 458-460C:527-534. · 3.29 Impact Factor