The objectives were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 10 ng/ml] in pediatric renal transplant (RTx) recipients, compared with controls and identify correlates of changes in 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels following transplantation. Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)(2)D, and iPTH were measured once in 275 healthy controls and at transplantation, and 3 and 12 months posttransplantation in 58 RTx recipients. Multivariate logistic regression models determined the odds ratio (OR) of vitamin D deficiency in RTx recipients vs. controls adjusted for age, sex, race, and season. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess changes following transplantation. At transplantation, 22% of nonblack and 27% of black RTx recipients were vitamin D deficient. The adjusted OR of vitamin D deficiency was greater in RTx recipients (p < 0.001) compared with controls; however, the transplant association was greater in nonblack vs. black individuals (interaction p = 0.02). Overall, 25(OH)D levels did not change significantly following transplantation. Younger age (p < 0.01), nonblack race (p < 0.001), visits in nonwinter months (p < 0.001), and supplementation with ≥400 IU/day ergo/cholecalciferol (p < 0.001) were associated with increases (or lesser declines) in 25(OH)D following transplantation. Increases in 25(OH)D levels (p < 0.001) and vitamin D supplementation (p < 0.01) were associated with greater reductions in iPTH levels following transplantation, independent of 1,25(OH)(2)D levels.
"In addition, deficiency of nutritional vitamin D contributes to decreased production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and is also directly associated with more severe secondary hyperparathyroidism along the entire spectrum of CKD, both before and after kidney transplant. Even when there is little or no residual 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity in the late stages of CKD, nutritional vitamin D deficiency leads to more marked secondary hyperparathyroidism (12, 16). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accrual of healthy bone during the critical period of childhood and adolescence sets the stage for lifelong skeletal health. However, in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), disturbances in mineral metabolism and endocrine homeostasis begin early on, leading to alterations in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume, and impairing growth. Risk factors for CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) include nutritional vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), altered growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, delayed puberty, malnutrition, and metabolic acidosis. After kidney transplantation, nutritional vitamin D deficiency, persistent hyperparathyroidism, tertiary FGF-23 excess, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, immunosuppressive therapy, and alteration of sex hormones continue to impair bone health and growth. As function of the renal allograft declines over time, CKD-MBD associated changes are reactivated, further impairing bone health. Strategies to optimize bone health post-transplant include healthy diet, weight-bearing exercise, correction of vitamin D deficiency and acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, steroid avoidance, and consideration of recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Other drug therapies have been used in adult transplant recipients, but there is insufficient evidence for use in the pediatric population at the present time. Future therapies to be explored include anti-FGF-23 antibodies, FGF-23 receptor blockers, and treatments targeting the colonic microbiota by reduction of generation of bacterial toxins and adsorption of toxic end products that affect bone mineralization.
Frontiers in Pediatrics 02/2014; 2:13. DOI:10.3389/fped.2014.00013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful kidney transplantation corrects many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, skeletal and cardiovascular morbidity remain prevalent in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and current recommendations from the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group suggest that bone disease-including turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth, and strength-as well as cardiovascular disease be evaluated in all patients with CKD. Although few studies have examined bone histology after renal transplantation, current data suggest that bone turnover and mineralization are altered in the majority of patients and that biochemical parameters are poor predictors of bone histology in this population. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning, although widely performed, has significant limitations in the pediatric transplant population and values have not been shown to correlate with fracture risk; thus, DXA is not recommended as a tool for the assessment of bone density. Newer imaging techniques, including computed tomography (quantitative CT (QCT), peripheral QCT (pQCT), high resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), which provide volumetric assessments of bone density and are able to discriminate bone microarchitecture, show promise in the assessment of bone strength; however, future studies are needed to define the value of these techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in pediatric renal transplant recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is common in adult renal transplant recipients, but data in children are scarce. Vitamin D is shown to have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system, renal function, and maintenance of bone health. We hypothesized that 25(OH)D deficiency is common in pediatric renal transplant recipients, and may be associated with hyperparathyroidism, short stature, renal function, and blood pressure control. We recruited 106 children during the winter/spring season who had a functioning renal transplant for at least 3 months. Twenty-five hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. Of the renal transplant patients, 38% were 25(OH)D deficient, 54% had insufficient levels, and only 8% had adequate 25(OH)D levels. Despite alfacalcidol supplementation in 59 (56%) patients, parathyroid hormone was increased in 58 (55%) and showed an inverse correlation with 25(OH)D (p = 0.0003, r = 0.61) but not with 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. Height standard deviation score (SDS) correlated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.007, r = 0.42) and time post transplantation (p = 0.02, r = 0.23); both were significant and independent predictors of height SDS. 25(OH)D inversely correlated with systolic BP SDS (p = 0.02, r =-0.26); this association was lost on multiple regression analysis, but 25(OH)D was the only modifiable risk factor for hypertension. There was no correlation with estimated GFR or proteinuria. In conclusion, 25(OH)D deficiency is common in pediatric renal transplant recipients and correlates with hyperparathyroidism and short stature. 25(OH)D deficiency may be a modifiable risk factor for hypertension in transplant recipients. Further studies are required to test if routine supplementation with ergo or cholecalciferol is safe and effective in children after renal transplantation.
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