Vitamin D deficiency and parathyroid hormone levels following renal transplantation in children
ABSTRACT The objectives were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 10 ng/ml] in pediatric renal transplant (RTx) recipients, compared with controls and identify correlates of changes in 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels following transplantation. Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)(2)D, and iPTH were measured once in 275 healthy controls and at transplantation, and 3 and 12 months posttransplantation in 58 RTx recipients. Multivariate logistic regression models determined the odds ratio (OR) of vitamin D deficiency in RTx recipients vs. controls adjusted for age, sex, race, and season. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess changes following transplantation. At transplantation, 22% of nonblack and 27% of black RTx recipients were vitamin D deficient. The adjusted OR of vitamin D deficiency was greater in RTx recipients (p < 0.001) compared with controls; however, the transplant association was greater in nonblack vs. black individuals (interaction p = 0.02). Overall, 25(OH)D levels did not change significantly following transplantation. Younger age (p < 0.01), nonblack race (p < 0.001), visits in nonwinter months (p < 0.001), and supplementation with ≥400 IU/day ergo/cholecalciferol (p < 0.001) were associated with increases (or lesser declines) in 25(OH)D following transplantation. Increases in 25(OH)D levels (p < 0.001) and vitamin D supplementation (p < 0.01) were associated with greater reductions in iPTH levels following transplantation, independent of 1,25(OH)(2)D levels.
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ABSTRACT: This prospective study evaluated changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole body bone mineral content (WB-BMC) and spine areal bone mineral density (spine-BMD), and tibia quantitative computed tomography (QCT) trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD and cortical area in 56 children over 12 months following renal transplantation. At transplant, spine-BMD Z-scores were greater in younger recipients (<13 years), versus 898 reference participants (p < 0.001). In multivariate models, greater decreases in spine-BMD Z-scores were associated with greater glucocorticoid dose (p < 0.001) and declines in parathyroid hormone levels (p = 0.008). Changes in DXA spine-BMD and QCT trabecular BMD were correlated (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). At 12 months, spine-BMD Z-scores remained elevated in younger recipients, but did not differ in older recipients (≥13) and reference participants. Baseline WB-BMC Z-scores were significantly lower than reference participants (p = 0.02). Greater glucocorticoid doses were associated with declines in WB-BMC Z-scores (p < 0.001) while greater linear growth was associated with gains in WB-BMC Z-scores (p = 0.01). Changes in WB-BMC Z-scores were associated with changes in tibia cortical area Z-scores (r = 0.52, p < 0.001), but not changes in cortical BMD Z-scores. Despite resolution of muscle deficits, WB-BMC Z-scores at 12 months remained significantly reduced. These data suggest that spine and WB DXA provides insight into trabecular and cortical outcomes following pediatric renal transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 12/2013; 14(1). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12524 · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The accrual of healthy bone during the critical period of childhood and adolescence sets the stage for lifelong skeletal health. However, in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), disturbances in mineral metabolism and endocrine homeostasis begin early on, leading to alterations in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume, and impairing growth. Risk factors for CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) include nutritional vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), altered growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, delayed puberty, malnutrition, and metabolic acidosis. After kidney transplantation, nutritional vitamin D deficiency, persistent hyperparathyroidism, tertiary FGF-23 excess, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, immunosuppressive therapy, and alteration of sex hormones continue to impair bone health and growth. As function of the renal allograft declines over time, CKD-MBD associated changes are reactivated, further impairing bone health. Strategies to optimize bone health post-transplant include healthy diet, weight-bearing exercise, correction of vitamin D deficiency and acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, steroid avoidance, and consideration of recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Other drug therapies have been used in adult transplant recipients, but there is insufficient evidence for use in the pediatric population at the present time. Future therapies to be explored include anti-FGF-23 antibodies, FGF-23 receptor blockers, and treatments targeting the colonic microbiota by reduction of generation of bacterial toxins and adsorption of toxic end products that affect bone mineralization.Frontiers in Pediatrics 02/2014; 2:13. DOI:10.3389/fped.2014.00013
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ABSTRACT: In children with CKD, information is limited regarding the prevalence and determinants of fibroblast growth factor 23 excess and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D deficiency across the spectrum of predialysis CKD. This study characterized circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D, and investigated their interrelationships and associations with GFR and secondary hyperparathyroidism in children with CKD who were enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children observational cohort study. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and determinants of mineral metabolism were measured in 464 children ages 1-16 years with predialysis CKD. GFR was measured by plasma disappearance of iohexol in 70% of participants and estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children estimating equation using serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations in the remainder of the participants. Participants were grouped according to CKD stage and by 10-ml/min categories of GFR. Median GFR for the cohort was 45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (interquartile range=33-57; range=15-109). Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration was above the normal range in 67% of participants (with higher levels observed among participants with lower GFR) before higher levels of serum parathyroid hormone and phosphorus were observed. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels were 34% higher in participants with glomerular disease than in participants with nonglomerular disease, despite similar GFR. Serum phosphorus levels, adjusted for age, were significantly lower at GFR of 60-69 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) than higher GFR, but thereafter they became higher in parallel with fibroblast growth factor 23 as GFR declined. Serum 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D concentrations were lower in those participants with low GFR values, high fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, and proteinuria. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present in 55% of participants with GFR<50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). In children with predialysis CKD, high plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 is the earliest detectable abnormality in mineral metabolism, and levels are highest in glomerular diseases.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12/2013; 9(2). DOI:10.2215/CJN.05840513 · 5.25 Impact Factor