Early regional response of apoptotic activity in newborn piglet brain following hypoxia and ischemia.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Neurochemical Research (Impact Factor: 2.55). 01/2011; 36(1):83-92. DOI: 10.1007/s11064-010-0267-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Responses of selected neuroregulatory proteins that promote (Caspase 3 and Bax) or inhibit (Bcl-2, high Bcl-2/Bax ratio) apoptotic cell death were measured in the brain of piglets subjected to precisely controlled hypoxic and ischemic insults: 1 h hypoxia (decreasing FiO₂ from 21 to 6%) or ischemia (ligation of carotid arteries and hemorrhage), followed by 0, 2 and 4 h recovery with 21% FiO₂. Protein expression was measured in cortex, hippocampus and striatum by Western blot. There were no significant differences in expression of Caspase-3 between sham operated, hypoxic and ischemic groups. There were significant regional differences in expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in response to hypoxia and ischemia. The changes in Bcl-2/Bax ratio were similar for hypoxia and ischemia except for striatum at zero time recovery, with ischemia giving lower ratios than hypoxia. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was also lower for the striatum than for the other regions of the brain, suggesting this region is the more susceptible to apoptotic injury.

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    ABSTRACT: Background. The mechanisms involving the initiation of apoptosis after brain hypoxia-ischemia through caspase activation are not fully defined. Oxygen free radicals may be an important mediator of caspase initiation with reactive oxygen species generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) being one potential source. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of XO in apoptosis after global cerebral injury. Methods. Immature rabbits were subjected to 8 minutes hypoxia and 8 minutes ischemia and then 4 hours of reperfusion. In one group ( 𝑛 = 5 ), the XO substrate xanthine was infused to generate more oxygen free radicals to promote apoptosis while in another ( 𝑛 = 5 ), the XO inhibitor allopurinol was given to reduce apoptosis by preventing free radical production ( 𝑛 = 5 ). Control animals ( 𝑛 = 4 ) received the vehicles. Caspase 3, 8, and 9 enzyme activities were measured in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, and caudate. Results. Administration of xanthine increased ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ) caspase 3 activity but only in the hippocampus, and pretreatment with allopurinol did not reduce it. No differences ( 𝑃 > 0 . 0 5 ) were found in any other region nor were there any changes in caspases 8 or 9 activities. Conclusion. We conclude that XO is not a major factor in inducing apoptosis after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
    ISRN Neuroscience. 08/2013; 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuro-cognitive disabilities are a well-recognized complication of hypothermic circulatory arrest. We and others have reported that prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) produces neuronal death and microglial proliferation and activation that are only partially mitigated by hypothermia. Microglia, and possibly other cells, are suggested to elaborate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which can trigger neuronal death cascades and exacerbate edema after CNS insults. Minocycline is neuroprotective in some brain ischemia models in part by blunting the microglial response. We tested the hypothesis that minocycline would attenuate neuroinflammation as reflected by brain tissue levels of TNF-α after hypothermic CA in rats. Rats were subjected to rapid exsanguination, followed by a 6 min normothermic CA. Hypothermia (30 °C) was then induced by an aortic saline flush. After a total of 20 min CA, resuscitation was achieved via cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). After 5 min reperfusion, minocycline (90 mg kg−1; n = 6) or vehicle (PBS; n = 6) was given. Hypothermia (34 °C) was maintained for 6 h. Rats were sacrificed at 6 or 24 h. TNF-α was quantified (ELISA) in four brain regions (cerebellum, CEREB; cortex, CTX; hippocampus, HIP; striatum, STRI). Naïve rats (n = 6) and rats subjected to the same anesthesia and CPB but no CA served as controls (n = 6). Immunocytochemistry was used to localize TNF-α. Naïve rats and CPB controls had no detectable TNF-α in any brain region. CA markedly increased brain TNF-α. Regional differences were seen, with the highest TNF-α levels in striatum in CA groups (10-fold higher, P < 0.05 vs. all other brain regions). TNF-α was undetectable at 24 h. Minocycline attenuated TNF-α levels in CTX, HIP and STRI (P < 0.05). TNF-α showed unique co-localization with neurons. In conclusion, we report region-dependent early increases in brain TNF-α levels after prolonged hypothermic CA, with maximal increases in striatum. Surprisingly, TNF-α co-localized in neurons and not microglia. Minocycline attenuated TNF-α by approximately 50% but did not totally ablate its production. That minocycline decreased brain TNF-α levels suggests that it may represent a therapeutic adjunct to hypothermia in CA neuroprotection. University of Pittsburgh IACUC 0809278B-3.
    Resuscitation 01/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Evaluation of neuronal changes in an animal experimental model of normocapnic hypoxia- reoxygenation. Materials and Methods. Fifty male piglets were the study subjects; normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 piglets and ten were sham-operated (controls). When bradycardia and/or severe hypotension occurred, reoxygenation was initiated. Animals were allocated in 4 groups according to the oxygen concentration, they were resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40%, and 100% O2. Persisting asystole despite 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation were the endpoints of the experiment. Surviving animals were euthanized and brain cortex samples were collected, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and examined for apoptotic bodies observing 10 consecutive high power fields. Results. Histological examination of the control group did not show any pathological change. On the contrary, apoptosis of neurons was found in 87.5% of treated animals. When specimens were examined according to the oxygen concentration used for resuscitation, we found marked intergroup variability; a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons was observed in piglets of group 4 (100% oxygen) compared to the others (P = 0.001). Conclusions. This preliminary data shows that normocapnic hypoxia and reoxygenation in Landrace/Large White piglets resulted in significant histological changes in the brain cortex. The degree of pathological changes in cortical neurons was significantly associated with the oxygen concentration used for reoxygenation, with a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons being observed in piglets reoxygenated with 100% compared to 18% O2 and to 21% O2.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:476349.


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