Nanotechnology in ophthalmology. Can J Ophthalmol

Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, NJ 07103, USA.
Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 1.33). 10/2010; 45(5):457-76. DOI: 10.3129/i10-090
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the size scale of intracellular structures and molecules, and involves systems and constructs in the order of <100 nm. The aim of nanomedicine is the comprehensive monitoring, control, construction, repair, defence, and improvement of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures that operate massively in parallel at the single-cell level, ultimately to achieve medical benefit. In this review we consider general principles of nanotechnology as applied to nanomedicine (e.g., biomimicry and pseudointelligence). Some applications of nanotechnology to ophthalmology are described (including treatment of oxidative stress; measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostics; use of nanoparticles to treat choroidal new vessels, prevent scarring after glaucoma surgery, and treat retinal degenerative disease with gene therapy; prosthetics; and regenerative nanomedicine). Nanotechnology will revolutionize our approach to current therapeutic challenges (e.g., drug delivery, postoperative scarring) and will enable us to address currently unsolvable problems (e.g., sight-restoring therapy for patients with retinal degenerative disease). Obstacles to the incorporation of nanotechnology remain, such as safe manufacturing techniques and unintended biological consequences of nanomaterial use. These obstacles are not insurmountable, and revolutionary treatments for ophthalmic diseases are expected to result from this burgeoning field.

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    • "More recently, nanotechnology applications have been directed also towards retinal diseases, including the development of nanoparticles capable of delivering genes and neuroprotective molecules (reviewed in Ref. [26]) as well as the fabrication of scaffolds with nanoscale topographies for the intraocular delivery of cells [27]. Another treatment modality being tested to treat retinal degenerations involves the use of sub or epiretinal implants [26] [28] [29], a field where nanocomponents have a great potential, in particular those that allow a good control of their surface topography. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have established long-term cultures of postnatal retinal cells on arrays of gallium phosphide nanowires of different geometries. Rod and cone photoreceptors, ganglion cells and bipolar cells survived on the substrates for at least 18 days in vitro. Glial cells were also observed, but these did not overgrow the neuronal population. On nanowires, neurons extended numerous long and branched neurites that expressed the synaptic vesicle marker synaptophysin. The longest nanowires (4 μm long) allowed a greater attachment and neurite elongation and our analysis suggests that the length of the nanowire per se and/or the adsorption of biomolecules on the nanowires may have been important factors regulating the observed cell behavior. The study thus shows that CNS neurons are amenable to gallium phosphide nanowires, probably as they create conditions that more closely resemble those encountered in the in vivo environment. These findings suggest that gallium phosphide nanowires may be considered as a material of interest when improving existing or designing the next generation of implantable devices. The features of gallium phosphide nanowires can be precisely controlled, making them suitable for this purpose.
    Biomaterials 11/2012; 34(4). DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.10.042 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Nanotechnology can also be used to optimize drug formulations, increasing drug solubility and altering the pharmacokinetics to sustain the release of the drug, thereby prolonging its bioavailability. The diverse platforms of nanotechnology can be utilized to develop more sophisticated, cell-targeted therapies and to combine different drugs into a single nanotherapeutic agent for synergistic therapeutic benefits [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology, along with related concepts such as nanomaterials, nanostructures and nanoparticles, has become a priority area for scientific research and technological development. Nanotechnology, i.e., the creation and utilization of materials and devices at nanometer scale, already has multiple applications in electronics and other fields. However, the greatest expectations are for its application in biotechnology and health, with the direct impact these could have on the quality of health in future societies. The emerging discipline of nanomedicine brings nanotechnology and medicine together in order to develop novel therapies and improve existing treatments. In nanomedicine, atoms and molecules are manipulated to produce nanostructures of the same size as biomolecules for interaction with human cells. This procedure offers a range of new solutions for diagnoses and "smart" treatments by stimulating the body's own repair mechanisms. It will enhance the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and cardiovascular diseases. Preventive medicine may then become a reality.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2011; 12(5):3303-21. DOI:10.3390/ijms12053303 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been considerable advances in the field of nanotechnology-based biosensors and diagnostics (NBBD) during the last two decades. These include the production of nanomaterials (NMs), employing them for new biosensing and diagnostic applications, their extensive characterization for in vitro and in vivo applications, and toxicity analysis. All these developments have led to tremendous technology push and successful demonstrations of several promising NBBD. However, there has been a significant lag in their commercialization, especially due to the lack of international regulatory guidelines for evaluating the safety of NMs and the growing public concerns about their toxicity. Despite these numerous advances and the recent regulatory approval of several NMs, it still remains to be seen if NBBD are superior to conventional ones (not based on NMs), reliable, reproducible, cost effective, and robust enough to meet the requirements of industries and healthcare. This manuscript provides a critical review of NBBD, the technology push, and the industrial/healthcare requirements.
    BioNanoScience 09/2012; 2(3). DOI:10.1007/s12668-012-0047-4
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