Nanotechnology in ophthalmology

Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, NJ 07103, USA.
Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 1.3). 10/2010; 45(5):457-76. DOI: 10.3129/i10-090
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the size scale of intracellular structures and molecules, and involves systems and constructs in the order of <100 nm. The aim of nanomedicine is the comprehensive monitoring, control, construction, repair, defence, and improvement of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures that operate massively in parallel at the single-cell level, ultimately to achieve medical benefit. In this review we consider general principles of nanotechnology as applied to nanomedicine (e.g., biomimicry and pseudointelligence). Some applications of nanotechnology to ophthalmology are described (including treatment of oxidative stress; measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostics; use of nanoparticles to treat choroidal new vessels, prevent scarring after glaucoma surgery, and treat retinal degenerative disease with gene therapy; prosthetics; and regenerative nanomedicine). Nanotechnology will revolutionize our approach to current therapeutic challenges (e.g., drug delivery, postoperative scarring) and will enable us to address currently unsolvable problems (e.g., sight-restoring therapy for patients with retinal degenerative disease). Obstacles to the incorporation of nanotechnology remain, such as safe manufacturing techniques and unintended biological consequences of nanomaterial use. These obstacles are not insurmountable, and revolutionary treatments for ophthalmic diseases are expected to result from this burgeoning field.

  • Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2014; 62(7):759-60. DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.138613 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanocarriers have shown tremendous potential for the target-specific delivery of proteins, genes and drugs. Nanoparticles are fabricated using different natural and synthetic polymers. Natural polysaccharides are often used as building block for developing nano-sized drug delivery vehicles. The physicochemical properties of these materials, such as excellent biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, surface charges that interact with DNA, protein and RNA, and cost effectiveness, make them exceptional base materials for nanocarrier fabrication. The mechanism for the complex formation of polysaccharides-DNA includes the electrostatic interactions between cationic polymers and anionic DNA to form polyplexes that offer unique possibilities for overcoming cellular barriers by escaping endosomal trafficking followed by cellular internalization and, consequently, enhancing the efficacy of drug and macromolecule delivery to targeted cells and tissue. Depending upon the cellular uptake and trafficking, nanocarriers are designed for different pharmacological and therapeutic applications. However, specific targeting that improves delivery remains an unsolved challenged. The process by which nanocarriers enter cells has important consequences not only for fate of these particles but also for biological systems and therapeutic applications.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 09/2014; 10(10):2149–2172. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2014.1958 · 7.58 Impact Factor

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