Methyl-H3K9-binding protein MPP8 mediates E-cadherin gene silencing and promotes tumour cell motility and invasion.
ABSTRACT H3K9 methylation has been linked to a variety of biological processes including position-effect variegation, heterochromatin formation and transcriptional regulation. To further understand the function of H3K9 methylation, we have identified and characterized MPP8 as a methyl-H3K9-binding protein. MPP8 displays an elevated expression pattern in various human carcinoma cells, whereas knocking-down MPP8 results in the loss of cellular mesenchymal marker as well as the reduction of tumour cell migration and invasiveness, suggesting that MPP8 contributes to tumour progression. Following characterization demonstrates that MPP8 targets the E-cadherin gene promoter and modulates the expression of this key regulator of cell behaviour and tumour progression through its methyl-H3K9 binding. Furthermore, MPP8 interacts with H3K9 methyltransferases GLP and ESET, as well as DNA methyltransferase 3A. MPP8 knockdown decreases DNA methylation on E-cadherin CpG island attended by the loss of DNMT3A localization, indicating MPP8 also directs DNA methylation. Together, our results suggest a model by which MPP8 recognizes methyl-H3K9 marks and directs DNA methylation to repress tumour suppressor gene expression and, in turn, has an important function in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis.
Article: Cell Adhesion and Its Endocytic Regulation in Cell Migration during Neural Development and Cancer Metastasis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cell migration is a crucial event for tissue organization during development, and its dysregulation leads to several diseases, including cancer. Cells exhibit various types of migration, such as single mesenchymal or amoeboid migration, collective migration and scaffold cell-dependent migration. The migration properties are partly dictated by cell adhesion and its endocytic regulation. While an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mediated mesenchymal cell migration requires the endocytic recycling of integrin-mediated adhesions after the disruption of cell-cell adhesions, an amoeboid migration is not dependent on any adhesions to extracellular matrix (ECM) or neighboring cells. In contrast, a collective migration is mediated by both cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions, and a scaffold cell-dependent migration is regulated by the endocytosis and recycling of cell-cell adhesion molecules. Although some invasive carcinoma cells exhibit an EMT-mediated mesenchymal or amoeboid migration, other cancer cells are known to maintain cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions and epithelial morphology during metastasis. On the other hand, a scaffold cell-dependent migration is mainly utilized by migrating neurons in normal developing brains. This review will summarize the structures of cell adhesions, including adherens junctions and focal adhesions, and discuss the regulatory mechanisms for the dynamic behavior of cell adhesions by endocytic pathways in cell migration in physiological and pathological conditions, focusing particularly on neural development and cancer metastasis.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(4):4564-90. · 2.60 Impact Factor
Article: H3K9me3-binding proteins are dispensable for SETDB1/H3K9me3-dependent retroviral silencing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are parasitic sequences whose derepression is associated with cancer and genomic instability. Many ERV families are silenced in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) via SETDB1-deposited trimethylated lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9me3), but the mechanism of H3K9me3-dependent repression remains unknown. Multiple proteins, including members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family, bind H3K9me2/3 and are involved in transcriptional silencing in model organisms. In this work, we address the role of such H3K9me2/3 "readers" in the silencing of ERVs in mESCs. We demonstrate that despite the reported function of HP1 proteins in H3K9me-dependent gene repression and the critical role of H3K9me3 in transcriptional silencing of class I and class II ERVs, the depletion of HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ, alone or in combination, is not sufficient for derepression of these elements in mESCs. While loss of HP1α or HP1β leads to modest defects in DNA methylation of ERVs or spreading of H4K20me3 into flanking genomic sequence, respectively, neither protein affects H3K9me3 or H4K20me3 in ERV bodies. Furthermore, using novel ERV reporter constructs targeted to a specific genomic site, we demonstrate that, relative to Setdb1, knockdown of the remaining known H3K9me3 readers expressed in mESCs, including Cdyl, Cdyl2, Cbx2, Cbx7, Mpp8, Uhrf1 and Jarid1a-c, leads to only modest proviral reactivation. Taken together, these results reveal that each of the known H3K9me3-binding proteins is dispensable for SETDB1-mediated ERV silencing. We speculate that H3K9me3 might maintain ERVs in a silent state in mESCs by directly inhibiting deposition of active covalent histone marks.Epigenetics & Chromatin 07/2011; 4(1):12. · 4.46 Impact Factor
Article: Application of Celluspots peptide arrays for the analysis of the binding specificity of epigenetic reading domains to modified histone tails.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epigenetic reading domains are involved in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin state by interacting with histones in a post-translational modification specific manner. A detailed knowledge of the target modifications of reading domains, including enhancing and inhibiting secondary modifications, will lead to a better understanding of the biological signaling processes mediated by reading domains. We describe the application of Celluspots peptide arrays which contain 384 histone peptides carrying 59 post translational modifications in different combinations as an inexpensive, reliable and fast method for initial screening for specific interactions of reading domains with modified histone peptides. To validate the method, we tested the binding specificities of seven known epigenetic reading domains on Celluspots peptide arrays, viz. the HP1ß and MPP8 Chromo domains, JMJD2A and 53BP1 Tudor domains, Dnmt3a PWWP domain, Rag2 PHD domain and BRD2 Bromo domain. In general, the binding results agreed with literature data with respect to the primary specificity of the reading domains, but in almost all cases we obtained additional new information concerning the influence of secondary modifications surrounding the target modification. We conclude that Celluspots peptide arrays are powerful screening tools for studying the specificity of putative reading domains binding to modified histone peptides.BMC Biochemistry 08/2011; 12:48. · 1.99 Impact Factor