Qualitative Imaging of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 2-Human Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Gene Therapy in a Phase I Study for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease

Movement Disorder Research Program, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94103, USA.
Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.03). 11/2010; 67(5):1377-85. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181f53a5c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Putaminal convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector, containing the human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (hAADC) gene for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD), has completed a phase I clinical trial.
To retrospectively analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) data from the phase I trial, correlate those data with similar nonhuman primate (NHP) data, and present how such information may improve future PD gene therapy trials in preparation for the initiation of the phase II trial.
Ten patients with PD had been treated with bilateral MRI-guided putaminal infusions of AAV2-hAADC. MRI and PET scans were obtained at baseline (before vector administration) and at various intervals after treatment. Three normal adult NHPs received similar infusions into the thalamus. Imaging studies for both groups are presented, as well as hAADC immunohistochemistry for the NHPs.
Early post-CED MRI confirmed the stereotactic targeting accuracy and revealed T2 hyperintensity around the distal cannula tracts, best seen within 4 hours of surgery. Coregistration of post-CED MRI and PET scans revealed increased PET uptake at the sites of T2 hyperintensity. Similar T2 hyperintensities in NHP MRI correlated with hAADC immunohistochemistry.
Our analysis confirms the correct targeting of the CED cannula tracts within the target human putamen. Coregistration of MRI and PET confirms colocalization of T2 hyperintensities and increased PET uptake around the distal cannula tracts. Because PET uptake closely correlates with hAADC transgene expression and NHP data confirm this relationship between T2 hyperintensity and hAADC immunohistochemistry, we believe that T2-weighted MRI allows visualization of a significant part of the distribution volume of the hAADC gene therapy. Recommendations for future protocols based on these data are presented.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical trials involving direct infusion of neurotrophic therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) have suffered from poor coverage of the putamen. The planned use of a novel interventional-magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) targeting system for achieving precise, real-time convection-enhanced delivery in a planned clinical trial of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2)-glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in PD patients was modeled in nonhuman primates (NHP). NHP received bilateral coinfusions of gadoteridol (Gd)/AAV2-GDNF into two sites in each putamen, and three NHP received larger infusion volumes in the thalamus. The average targeting error for cannula tip placement in the putamen was <1 mm, and adjacent putamenal infusions were distributed in a uniform manner. GDNF expression patterns in the putamen were highly correlated with areas of Gd distribution seen on MRI. The distribution volume to infusion volume ratio in the putamen was similar to that in the thalamus, where larger infusions were achieved. Modeling the placement of adjacent 150 and 300 µl thalamic infusions into the three-dimensional space of the human putamen demonstrated coverage of the postcommissural putamen, containment within the striatum and expected anterograde transport to globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. The results elucidate the necessary parameters for achieving widespread GDNF expression in the putamenal motor area and afferent substantia nigra of PD patients.
    Molecular Therapy 02/2011; 19(6):1048-57. DOI:10.1038/mt.2011.11 · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This comparative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis evaluated the ratio of AC-PC (anterior commissure to posterior commissure) distance measures in selected groups of humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). An understanding of the basis of this ratio between primate species may allow more accurate translation of NHP stereotactic targeting measurements to upcoming human trials. MRI datasets of adult humans [n=21], and juvenile and adult NHPs (Macaca fascicularis [n=40], and Macaca mulatta [n=32]), were evaluated in a mid-sagittal plane to obtain the AC-PC distance measure for each examined subject. Two trained evaluators, blinded to each other's results, carried out three separate measurements of the AC-PC length for each subject. Each observer carried out measurements of the entire dataset [n=93] before repeating the measurements two additional times. Previous dataset measures were not available for review at the time of subsequent measures. Inter- and intra-observer variabilities were not statistically significant. Minimal intraspecies variation was found in the AC-PC measurement of our human and NHP groups. We found significant interspecies differences, however, more between humans and NHPs, and less between the NHP groups. Regression analysis confirms the strong linear relationship of AC-PC distance based primarily on species in our study groups. Human/NHP AC-PC ratios varied between 2.1 and 2.3 based on the compared NHP species groups. We conclude that the scale differences in brain measurements between NHPs and humans described in this study allows improved translation of stereotactic targeting coordinates in future human clinical trials, which may lead to improved efficacy and safety.
    Journal of neuroscience methods 03/2011; 196(1):124-30. DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.12.023 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because convection-enhanced delivery relies on bulk flow of fluid in the interstitial spaces, MR imaging techniques that detect extracellular fluid and fluid movement may be useful for tracking convective drug distribution. To determine the tracking accuracy of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging sequences, the authors followed convective distribution of radiolabeled compounds using these imaging sequences in nonhuman primates. Three nonhuman primates underwent thalamic convective infusions (5 infusions) with (14)C-sucrose (MW 342 D) or (14)C-dextran (MW 70,000 D) during serial MR imaging (T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging). Imaging, histological, and autoradiographic findings were analyzed. Real-time T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging clearly demonstrated the region of infusion, and serial images revealed progressive filling of the bilateral thalami during infusion. Imaging analysis for T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences revealed that the tissue volume of distribution (Vd) increased linearly with volume of infusion (Vi; R(2) = 0.94, R(2) = 0.91). Magnetic resonance imaging analysis demonstrated that the mean ± SD Vd/Vi ratios for T2-weighted (3.6 ± 0.5) and diffusion-weighted (3.3 ± 0.4) imaging were similar (p = 0.5). While (14)C-sucrose and (14)C-dextran were homogeneously distributed over the infused region, autoradiographic analysis revealed that T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging significantly underestimated the Vd of both (14)C-sucrose (mean differences 51.3% and 52.3%, respectively; p = 0.02) and (14)C-dextran (mean differences 49.3% and 59.6%; respectively, p = 0.001). Real-time T2- and diffusion-weighted MR imaging significantly underestimate tissue Vd during convection-enhanced delivery over a wide range of molecular sizes. Application of these imaging modalities may lead to inaccurate estimation of convective drug distribution.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 06/2011; 115(3):474-80. DOI:10.3171/2011.5.JNS11246 · 3.15 Impact Factor