A review of cutaneous anthrax and its outcome
Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.
Journal of infection and public health
09/2010; 3(3):98-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2010.07.004
Anthrax is still an endemic disease in some countries in the world and has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with recent intentional outbreak. The aim of this study was to review our clinical experience with cutaneous anthrax cases. From the patient's files, transmission of the diseases, clinical findings and severity of infection, treatment and outcome of patients were recorded. Twenty-two cases were diagnosed as cutaneous anthrax in the last 7 years. Of these cases, 10 cases were severe form of cutaneous anthrax, 10 cases were mild form and 2 cases were toxemic shock due to cutaneous anthrax. The incubation period was between 1 and 17 days. The main clinical characteristics of the cases with severe cutaneous anthrax were fever, hemorrhagic bullous lesions surrounded by an extensive erythema and edema, and leukocytosis. Two cases with toxemic shock had low systolic blood pressure, apathy and toxemic appearance, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia & hyponatremia. Penicillin G was given in 15 cases, amoxicillin in 4 and other antibiotics in 3 cases for 3-10 days. Skin lesion left deep tissue scar in 4 cases and were grafted. Physicians working in endemic areas and also in western countries should be aware of all clinical forms of anthrax.
Available from: Mehmet Doganay
- "The eschar begins to resolve about 10 days after the appearance of the initial papule. Resolution is slow (2-6 weeks), regardless of treatment     . Fig. (3). "
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ABSTRACT: Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. B. anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment.
Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery 04/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.2174/1574891X10666150408162354
Available from: Vincent A Fischetti
- "Seroreactivity to PA63 could also be observed in people who have been infected with Bacillus anthracis and survived. Since pulmonary and gastrointestinal Anthrax is usually fatal or debilitating, and since cutaneous Anthrax results in a characteristic black eschar, it is unlikely that prior Anthrax would be missed on a directed health questionnaire –. Thus, positive immune reactivity to PA63 would strongly suggest non-specific interaction of host antibodies with PA63 or prior exposure to an antigen with a shared epitope. We thus excluded samples that showed immunoreactivity against ETX and PA63 since these indicated equivocal results. "
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ABSTRACT: We have isolated Clostridium perfringens type B, an epsilon toxin-secreting bacillus, from a young woman at clinical presentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with actively enhancing lesions on brain MRI. This finding represents the first time that C. perfringens type B has been detected in a human. Epsilon toxin's tropism for the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and binding to oligodendrocytes/myelin makes it a provocative candidate for nascent lesion formation in MS. We examined a well-characterized population of MS patients and healthy controls for carriage of C. perfringens toxinotypes in the gastrointestinal tract. The human commensal Clostridium perfringens type A was present in approximately 50% of healthy human controls compared to only 23% in MS patients. We examined sera and CSF obtained from two tissue banks and found that immunoreactivity to ETX is 10 times more prevalent in people with MS than in healthy controls, indicating prior exposure to ETX in the MS population. C. perfringens epsilon toxin fits mechanistically with nascent MS lesion formation since these lesions are characterized by BBB permeability and oligodendrocyte cell death in the absence of an adaptive immune infiltrate.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76359. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076359 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Available from: Erin P Price
- "If not promptly treated with antibiotics such as penicillin, anthrax can result in the death of 10–40% of patients and is fatal within as few as 24 h . The most common of the three forms of this disease is cutaneous—with respiratory and gastrointestinal being the other two—having as clinical manifestations increased body temperature, and bullous lesions resulting in severe erythema, edema, and tissue necrosis [6, 7]. "
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ABSTRACT: It has been recorded that one of the possible causes that eventually escalated into the 1857 manslaughter at Mountain Meadows in Southern Utah was the poisoning of an open spring by the Fancher–Baker party as they crossed the Utah territory on their way from Arkansas to California. Historical accounts report that a number of cattle died, followed by human casualties from those that came in contact with the dead animals. Even after the Arkansas party departed, animals continued to perish and people were still afflicted by some unknown plague. Proctor Hancock Robison, a local 14-year-old boy, died shortly after skinning one of the “poisoned” cows. A careful review of the historical records, along with the more recent scientific literature, seems to exclude the likelihood of actual poisoning in favor of a more recent theory that would point to the bacterium Bacillus anthracis as the possible cause of human and animal deaths. In order to test this hypothesis, Proctor’s remains were exhumed, identified through mitochondrial DNA analysis, and tested for the presence of anthrax spores. Although preliminary testing of remains and soil was negative, description of the clinical conditions that affected Proctor and other individuals does not completely rule out the hypothesis of death by anthrax.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00414-012-0681-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 03/2012; 127(1). DOI:10.1007/s00414-012-0681-y · 2.71 Impact Factor
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