Building the centriole.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA.
Current biology: CB (Impact Factor: 10.99). 09/2010; 20(18):R816-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Centrioles are conserved microtubule-based organelles that lie at the core of the animal centrosome and play a crucial role in nucleating the formation of cilia and flagella in most eukaryotes. Centrioles have a complex ultrastructure with ninefold symmetry and a well-defined length. This structure is assembled from a host of proteins, including a variety of disease gene products. Over a century after the discovery of centrioles, the mechanisms underlying the assembly of these fascinating organelles, in particular the establishment of ninefold symmetry and the control of centriole length, are now starting to be uncovered.

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    ABSTRACT: Apicomplexan parasites can change fundamental features of cell division during their life cycles, suspending cytokinesis when needed and changing proliferative scale in different hosts and tissues. The structural and molecular basis for this remarkable cell cycle flexibility is not fully understood, although the centrosome serves a key role in determining when and how much replication will occur. Here we describe the discovery of multiple replicating core complexes with distinct protein composition and function in the centrosome of Toxoplasma gondii. An outer core complex distal from the nucleus contains the TgCentrin1/TgSfi1 protein pair, along with the cartwheel protein TgSas-6 and a novel Aurora-related kinase, while an inner core closely aligned with the unique spindle pole (centrocone) holds distant orthologs of the CEP250/C-Nap protein family. This outer/inner spatial relationship of centrosome cores is maintained throughout the cell cycle. When in metaphase, the duplicated cores align to opposite sides of the kinetochores in a linear array. As parasites transition into S phase, the cores sequentially duplicate, outer core first and inner core second, ensuring that each daughter parasite inherits one copy of each type of centrosome core. A key serine/threonine kinase distantly related to the MAPK family is localized to the centrosome, where it restricts core duplication to once per cycle and ensures the proper formation of new daughter parasites. Genetic analysis of the outer core in a temperature-sensitive mutant demonstrated this core functions primarily in cytokinesis. An inhibition of ts-TgSfi1 function at high temperature caused the loss of outer cores and a severe block to budding, while at the same time the inner core amplified along with the unique spindle pole, indicating the inner core and spindle pole are independent and co-regulated. The discovery of a novel bipartite organization in the parasite centrosome that segregates the functions of karyokinesis and cytokinesis provides an explanation for how cell cycle flexibility is achieved in apicomplexan life cycles.
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    ABSTRACT: Although most animal cells contain centrosomes, consisting of a pair of centrioles, their precise contribution to cell division and embryonic development is unclear. Genetic ablation of STIL, an essential component of the centriole replication machinery in mammalian cells, causes embryonic lethality in mice around mid gestation associated with defective Hedgehog signaling. Here, we describe, by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, that STIL(-/-) mouse embryos do not contain centrioles or primary cilia, suggesting that these organelles are not essential for mammalian development until mid gestation. We further show that the lack of primary cilia explains the absence of Hedgehog signaling in STIL(-/-) cells. Exogenous re-expression of STIL or STIL microcephaly mutants compatible with human survival, induced non-templated, de novo generation of centrioles in STIL(-/-) cells. Thus, while the abscence of centrioles is compatible with mammalian gastrulation, lack of centrioles and primary cilia impairs Hedgehog signaling and further embryonic development.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2014; 13(18):2859-2868. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2014.946830 · 5.24 Impact Factor
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