Article

Casein kinase 2 regulates the NR2 subunit composition of synaptic NMDA receptors.

Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.77). 09/2010; 67(6):984-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in development, synaptic plasticity, and neurological disease. NMDAR subunit composition defines their biophysical properties and downstream signaling. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates the NR2B subunit within its PDZ-binding domain; however, the consequences for NMDAR localization and function are unclear. Here we show that CK2 phosphorylation of NR2B regulates synaptic NR2B and NR2A in response to activity. We find that CK2 phosphorylates NR2B, but not NR2A, to drive NR2B-endocytosis and remove NR2B from synapses resulting in an increase in synaptic NR2A expression. During development there is an activity-dependent switch from NR2B to NR2A at cortical synapses. We observe an increase in CK2 expression and NR2B phosphorylation over this same critical period and show that the acute activity-dependent switch in NR2 subunit composition at developing hippocampal synapses requires CK2 activity. Thus, CK2 plays a central role in determining the NR2 subunit content of synaptic NMDARs.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
114 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Controlling the density of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) at synapses is essential for regulating the strength of excitatory neurotransmission. In particular, the phosphorylation of AMPARs is important for defining both synaptic expression and intracellular routing of receptors. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification known to regulate many cellular events and the C-termini of glutamate receptors are important targets. Recently, the first intracellular loop1 region of the GluA1 subunit of AMPARs was reported to regulate synaptic targeting through phosphorylation of S567 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Intriguingly, the loop1 region of all four AMPAR subunits contains many putative phosphorylation sites (S/T/Y), leaving the possibility that other kinases may regulate AMPAR surface expression via phosphorylation of the loop regions. To explore this hypothesis, we used in vitro phosphorylation assays with a small panel of purified kinases and found that casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates the GluA1 and GluA2 loop1 regions, but not GluA3 or GluA4. Interestingly, when we reduced the endogenous expression of CK2 using a specific short hairpin RNA against the regulatory subunit CK2β, we detected a reduction of GluA1 surface expression, whereas GluA2 was unchanged. Furthermore, we identified S579 of GluA1 as a substrate of CK2, and the expression of GluA1 phosphodeficient mutants in hippocampal neurons displayed reduced surface expression. Therefore, our study identifies CK2 as a regulator of GluA1 surface expression by phosphorylating the intracellular loop1 region.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 04/2014; 39(7). · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic causes, or predisposition, are increasingly accepted to be part of the ethiopathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric diseases. While genes can be studied in any type of cells, their physiological function in human brain cells is difficult to evaluate, particularly in living subjects. As a first step towards the characterisation of human inducible pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons from autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients, we used gene expression and functional studies to define the regional identity of the typical forebrain differentiation, demonstrate expression patterns of genes of interest in ASD and understand the properties of 'control' iPSC-derived neurons (iCell-Neurons™), with a focus on receptors and ion channels that play a central role in synaptic physio-pathology. The gene expression profile of the iCell-Neurons™ closely resembled that observed in neonatal prefrontal cortex tissues. Functional studies, performed mainly using calcium flux assays, demonstrated the presence of ionotropic glutamate (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate) and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels were also identified using similar techniques. Overall, the results reported here suggest that iCell-Neurons™ are a good cellular model of a relatively immature forebrain human neuron population that can be used both as a control in comparison to patients cells, and as host cells in which mutations, insertions and deletions can be used in order to study the molecular mechanisms of ASD and other neurological disorders in an isogenic cellular background.
    Psychopharmacology 01/2014; · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While CaMKII has long been known to be essential for synaptic plasticity and learning, recent work points to new dimensions of CaMKII function in the nervous system, revealing that CaMKII also plays an important role in synaptic organization. Ca(2+)-triggered autophosphorylation of CaMKII not only provides molecular memory by prolonging CaMKII activity during long-term plasticity (LTP) and learning but also represents a mechanism for autoactivation of CaMKII's multifaceted protein-docking functions. New details are also emerging about the distinct roles of CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ in synaptic homeostasis, further illustrating the multilayered and complex nature of CaMKII's involvement in synaptic regulation. Here, I review novel molecular and functional insight into how CaMKII supports synaptic function.
    Neuron 01/2014; 81(2):249-65. · 15.77 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
10 Downloads
Available from
Jun 10, 2014