A screen for potential ferredoxin electron transfer partners uncovers new, redox dependent interactions.
ABSTRACT Ferredoxin (Fd) is the primary soluble acceptor at the end of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, and is known to directly transfer electrons to a wide range of proteins for use in metabolism and regulatory processes. We have conducted a screen to identify new putative Fd interaction partners in the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using Fd-chromatography in combination with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Many novel interactions were detected, including several redox enzymes, which are now candidates for further experiments to investigate electron transfer with Fd. In addition, some proteins with regulatory activity related to photosynthesis were identified. We cloned and expressed one such protein, known as RpaA, which is a specific regulator of energy transfer between phycobilisomes and PSI. Using the recombinant protein we confirmed direct interaction with Fd, and discovered that this was dependent on redox state. The screen for putative Fd-binding proteins was repeated, comparing oxidizing and reducing conditions, identifying many proteins whose interaction with Fd is redox dependent. These include several additional signaling molecules, among them the LexA repressor, Ycf53 and NII, which are all involved in interpreting the redox state of the cell.
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ABSTRACT: Ferredoxins (Fed) function as electron carrier in a wide range of metabolic and regulatory reactions. It is not clear yet, whether the multiplicity of Fed proteins is also reflected in functional multiplicity in photosynthetic organisms. We addressed the biological function of the bacterial-type Fed, Fed7 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The expression of fed7 is induced under low CO2 conditions (LC) and further enhanced by additional high light (HL) treatment. These conditions are considered as promoting photooxidative stress, and prompted us to investigate the biological function of Fed7 under these conditions. Loss of Fed7 did not inhibit growth of the mutant strain Δfed7 but significantly modulated photosynthesis parameters when the mutant was grown under LC and HL conditions. Characteristics of the Δfed7 mutant included elevated chlorophyll and photosystem I levels as well as reduced abundance and activity of photosystem II. Transcriptional profiling of the mutant under LC conditions demonstrated changes in gene regulation of the carbon concentrating mechanism and photoprotective mechanisms such as the Flv2/4 electron valve, the PSII dimer stabilizing protein Sll0218, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. We conclude that the function of Fed7 is connected to coping with photooxidative stress, possibly by constituting a redox-responsive regulatory element in photoprotection. In photosynthetic eukaryotes domains homologous to Fed7 are exclusively found in chloroplast DnaJ-like proteins that are likely involved in remodeling of regulator protein complexes. It is conceivable that the regulatory function of Fed7 evolved in cyanobacteria and was recruited by Viridiplantae as the controller for the chloroplast DnaJ-like proteins.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In marine systems, nitrate is the major reservoir of inorganic fixed nitrogen. The only known biological nitrate-forming reaction is nitrite oxidation, but despite its importance, our knowledge of the organisms catalyzing this key process in the marine N-cycle is very limited. The most frequently encountered marine NOB are related to Nitrospina gracilis, an aerobic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium isolated from ocean surface waters. To date, limited physiological and genomic data for this organism were available and its phylogenetic affiliation was uncertain. In this study, the draft genome sequence of N. gracilis strain 3/211 was obtained. Unexpectedly for an aerobic organism, N. gracilis lacks classical reactive oxygen defense mechanisms and uses the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for carbon fixation. These features indicate microaerophilic ancestry and are consistent with the presence of Nitrospina in marine oxygen minimum zones. Fixed carbon is stored intracellularly as glycogen, but genes for utilizing external organic carbon sources were not identified. N. gracilis also contains a full gene set for oxidative phosphorylation with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor and for reverse electron transport from nitrite to NADH. A novel variation of complex I may catalyze the required reverse electron flow to low-potential ferredoxin. Interestingly, comparative genomics indicated a strong evolutionary link between Nitrospina, the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira, and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, apparently including the horizontal transfer of a periplasmically oriented nitrite oxidoreductase and other key genes for nitrite oxidation at an early evolutionary stage. Further, detailed phylogenetic analyses using concatenated marker genes provided evidence that Nitrospina forms a novel bacterial phylum, for which we propose the name Nitrospinae.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:27. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 grows photoautotrophically across a broad pH range but wild-type cultures reach a higher density at elevated pH; however, photoheterotrophic growth is similar at high and neutral pH. A number of Photosystem II (PS II) mutants each lacking at least one lumenal extrinsic protein, and carrying a second PS II lumenal mutation, are able to grow photoautotrophically in BG-11 medium at pH 10.0, but not pH 7.5. We investigated the basis of this pH effect and observed no pH-specific change in variable fluorescence yield from PS II centers of the wild type or the pH-dependent ΔPsbO:ΔPsbU and ΔPsbV:ΔCyanoQ strains; however, 77 K fluorescence emission spectra indicated increased coupling of the phycobilisome (PBS) antenna at pH 10.0 in all mutants. DNA microarray data showed a cell-wide response to transfer from pH 10.0 to pH 7.5, including decreased mRNA levels of a number of oxidative stress-responsive transcripts. We hypothesize this transcriptional response led to increased tolerance against reactive oxygen species and in particular singlet oxygen. This response enabled photoautotrophic growth of the PS II mutants at pH 10.0. This hypothesis was supported by increased resistance of all strains to rose bengal at pH 10.0 compared to pH 7.5.Plant and Cell Physiology 02/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor