The evolutionarily ancient low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family represents a class of widely expressed cell surface receptors. Since the dawn of the first primitive multicellular organisms, several structurally and functionally distinct families of lipoprotein receptors have evolved. In accordance with the now obsolete 'one-gene-one-function' hypothesis, these cell surface receptors were originally perceived as mere transporters of lipoproteins, lipids, and nutrients or as scavenger receptors, which remove other kinds of macromolecules, such as proteases and protease inhibitors from the extracellular environment and the cell surface. This picture has since undergone a fundamental change. Experimental evidence has replaced the perception that these receptors serve merely as cargo transporters. Instead it is now clear that the transport of macromolecules is inseparably intertwined with the molecular machinery by which cells communicate with each other. Lipoprotein receptors are essentially sensors of the extracellular environment that participate in a wide range of physiological processes by physically interacting and coevolving with primary signal transducers as co-regulators. Furthermore, lipoprotein receptors modulate cellular trafficking and localization of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, compelling evidence shows that LDL receptor family members are involved in tumor development and progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD); the ε4 allele increases risk and the ε2 allele is protective. In the central nervous system (CNS), apoE is produced by glial cells, is present in high-density-like lipoproteins, interacts with several receptors that are members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, and is a protein that binds to the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. There are a variety of mechanisms by which apoE isoform may influence risk for AD. There is substantial evidence that differential effects of apoE isoform on AD risk are influenced by the ability of apoE to affect Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain. Other mechanisms are also likely to play a role in the ability of apoE to influence CNS function as well as AD, including effects on synaptic plasticity, cell signaling, lipid transport and metabolism, and neuroinflammation. ApoE receptors, including LDLRs, Apoer2, very low-density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLRs), and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) appear to influence both the CNS effects of apoE as well as Aβ metabolism and toxicity. Therapeutic strategies based on apoE and apoE receptors may include influencing apoE/Aβ interactions, apoE structure, apoE lipidation, LDLR receptor family member function, and signaling. Understanding the normal and disease-related biology connecting apoE, apoE receptors, and AD is likely to provide novel insights into AD pathogenesis and treatment.
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 03/2012; 2(3):a006312. DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a006312 · 9.47 Impact Factor
"Tandem YWTD b-propeller–EGF domain pairs are a feature of many members of the LRP family (Dieckmann et al., 2010; He et al., 2004; Springer, 1998). In the LRP6 ectodomain, four consecutive pairs interact with several classes of secreted ligands (agonists and antagonists of Wnt signaling), serving as a nexus for the integration of these disparate interactions into activation or inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LDL-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), alongside Frizzled receptors, transduces Wnt signaling across the plasma membrane. The LRP6 ectodomain comprises four tandem β-propeller-EGF-like domain (PE) pairs that harbor binding sites for Wnt morphogens and their antagonists including Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1). To understand how these multiple interactions are integrated, we combined crystallographic analysis of the third and fourth PE pairs with electron microscopy (EM) to determine the complete ectodomain structure. An extensive inter-pair interface, conserved for the first-to-second and third-to-fourth PE interactions, contributes to a compact platform-like architecture, which is disrupted by mutations implicated in developmental diseases. EM reconstruction of the LRP6 platform bound to chaperone Mesd exemplifies a binding mode spanning PE pairs. Cellular and binding assays identify overlapping Wnt3a- and Dkk1-binding surfaces on the third PE pair, consistent with steric competition, but also suggest a model in which the platform structure supports an interplay of ligands through multiple interaction sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes (APOE, clusterin, complement receptor 1 (CR1) and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein, PICALM) can be implicated directly (APOE, CR1) or indirectly (clusterin and PICALM) in the herpes simplex life cycle. The virus binds to proteoliposomes containing APOE or APOA1 and also to CR1, and both clusterin and PICALM are related to a mannose-6-phosphate receptor used by the virus for cellular entry and intracellular transport. PICALM also binds to a nuclear exportin used by the virus for nuclear egress. Clusterin and complement receptor 1 are both related to the complement pathways and play a general role in pathogen defence. In addition, the amyloid precursor protein APP is involved in herpes viral transport and gamma-secretase cleaves a number of receptors used by the virus for cellular entry. APOE, APOA1 and clusterin, or alpha 2-macroglobulin, insulysin and caspase 3, which also bind to the virus, are involved in beta-amyloid clearance or degradation, as are the viral binding complement components, C3 and CR1. There are multiple ways in which the products of key susceptibility genes might be able to modify the viral life cycle and in turn the virus interacts with key proteins involved in APP and beta-amyloid processing. These interactions support a role for the herpes simplex virus in Alzheimer's disease pathology and suggest that antiviral agents or vaccination might be considered as viable therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's disease.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.