Article

# Dark energy from primordial inflationary quantum fluctuations.

Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Physical Review Letters (Impact Factor: 7.73). 09/2010; 105(12):121301. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.121301 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**In this talk, we have shown that current cosmic acceleration can be explained by an almost massless scalar field experiencing quantum fluctuations during primordial inflation. Provided its mass does not exceed the Hubble parameter today, this field has been frozen during the cosmological ages to start dominating the universe only recently. By using supernovae data, completed with baryonic acoustic oscillations from galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background anisotropies, we infer the energy scale of primordial inflation to be around a few TeV, which implies a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio of the primordial fluctuations. Moreover, our model suggests that inflation lasted for an extremely long period. Dark energy could therefore be a natural consequence of cosmic inflation close to the electroweak energy scale.Journal of Physics Conference Series 12/2010; 259(1):012082. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We show that a longitudinal gauge degree of freedom for a vector field is equivalent to a Pais-Uhlenbeck scalar field. With the help of this equivalence, we can determine natural interactions of this field with scalars and fermions. Since the theory has a global U(1) symmetry, we have the usual conserved current of the charged fields, thanks to which the dynamics of the scalar field is not modified by the interactions. We use this fact to consistently quantize the theory even in the presence of interactions. We argue that such a degree of freedom can only be excited by gravitational effects like the inflationary era of the early universe and may play the role of dark energy in the form of an effective cosmological constant whose value is linked to the inflation scale.Journal of High Energy Physics 10/2012; 2013(4). · 5.62 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**The dynamics of hybrid models is usually approximated by the evolution of a scalar field slowly rolling along a nearly flat valley. Inflation ends with a waterfall phase, due to a tachyonic instability. This final phase is usually assumed to be nearly instantaneous. In this thesis, we go beyond these approximations and analyze the exact 2-field dynamics of hybrid models. Several effects are put in evidence: 1) the possible slow-roll violations along the valley induce the non existence of inflation at small field values. Provided super-planckian fields, the scalar spectrum of the original model is red, in agreement with observations. 2) The initial field values are not fine-tuned along the valley but also occupy a considerable part of the field space exterior to it. They form a structure with fractal boundaries. Using bayesian methods, their distribution in the whole parameter space is studied. Natural bounds on the potential parameters are derived. 3) For the original model, inflation is found to continue for more than 60 e-folds along waterfall trajectories in some part of the parameter space. The scalar power spectrum of adiabatic perturbations is modified and is generically red, possibly in agreement with CMB observations. Topological defects are conveniently stretched outside the observable Universe. 4) The analysis of the initial conditions is extended to the case of a closed Universe, in which the initial singularity is replaced by a classical bounce. In the third part of the thesis, we study how the present CMB constraints on the cosmological parameters could be ameliorated with the observation of the 21cm cosmic background, by future giant radio-telescopes. Forecasts are determined for a characteristic Fast Fourier Transform Telescope, by using both Fisher matrix and MCMC methods.09/2011;

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