Truly Random Number Generation Based on Measurement of Phase Noise of Laser

CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
Physical Review E (Impact Factor: 2.29). 05/2010; 81(5 Pt 1):051137. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.051137
Source: PubMed


We present a simple approach to realize truly random number generator based on measuring the phase noise of a single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser. The true randomness of the quantum phase noise originates from the spontaneous emission of photons and the random bit generation rate is ultimately limited only by the laser linewidth. With the final bit generation rate of 20 Mbit/s, the truly random bit sequence guaranteed by the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics passes the three standard randomness tests (ENT, Diehard, and NIST Statistical Test Suites). Moreover, a continuously generated random bit sequence, with length up to 14 Gbit, is verified by two additional criteria for its true randomness.

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    • "RNGs that rely on quantum processes (QRNGs), on the other hand, can have guaranteed indeterminism and entropy, since quantum processes are inherently unpredictable [7] [8]. Examples of such processes include quantum phase fluctuations [9] [10] [11] [12] [13], spontaneous emission noise [14] [15] [16], photon arrival times [17] [18] [19], stimulated Raman scattering [20], photon polarization state [21] [22], vacuum fluctuations [23] [24], and even mobile phone cameras [25]. These QRNGs resolve both shortcomings of the PRNGs. "
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    ABSTRACT: The generation of random numbers via quantum processes is an efficient and reliable method to obtain true indeterministic random numbers that are of vital importance to cryptographic communication and large scale computer modelling. However, in realistic scenarios, the raw output of a quantum random number generator is inevitably tainted with classical technical noise. The integrity of the device could be compromised if this noise is tampered with, or even controlled by some malicious party. To safeguard against this, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach that produces side-information independent randomness that is quantified by min-entropy conditioned on this classical noise. We present a method for maximising the conditional min-entropy of the number sequence generated from a given quantum to classical noise ratio (QCNR). The detected photo-current in our experiment is shown to have a real-time random number generation rate of 14 Mbps/MHz. Integrating this figure across the spectral response of the detection system shows the potential to deliver more than 70 Gbps of random numbers in our experimental setup.
    Physical Review Applied 11/2014; 3(5). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.3.054004
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    • "Recently, it has been shown that quantum physics also can be used to verify the randomness of entanglement-based generators [10] [11]. Examples of demonstrated QRNGs include two-path splitting of single photons [12], photon-number path entanglement [13], time of generation or counting of photons [14–18], fluctuations of the vacuum state using homodyne detection techniques [19] [20] as well as interferometric schemes [21] [22] [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.
    Optics Express 10/2011; 19(21):20665-72. DOI:10.1364/OE.19.020665 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The time evolution of the output of a semiconductor laser subject to optical feedback can exhibit high-dimensional chaotic fluctuations. In this contribution, our aim is to quantify the complexity of the chaotic time-trace generated by a semiconductor laser subject to delayed optical feedback. To that end, we discuss the properties of two recently introduced complexity measures based on information theory, namely the permutation entropy (PE) and the statistical complexity measure (SCM). The PE and SCM are defined as a functional of a symbolic probability distribution, evaluated using the Bandt-Pompe recipe to assign a probability distribution function to the time series generated by the chaotic system. In order to evaluate the performance of these novel complexity quantifiers, we compare them to a more standard chaos quantifier, namely the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Here, we present numerical results showing that the statistical complexity and the permutation entropy, evaluated at the different time-scales involved in the chaotic regime of the laser subject to optical feedback, give valuable information about the complexity of the laser dynamics.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 04/2010; 7720. DOI:10.1117/12.863581 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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