Enzymes hold a great promise as therapeutic agents because of their unique specificity and high level of activity. Yet, clinically important enzyme drugs are for less common than conventional low molecular weight drugs due to a number of disadvantages. Most important among these are poor stability, potential immunogenicity, and potential systemic toxicity. Recent developments in synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles and exciting novel properties of some classes of nanomaterials have boosted interest in the potential use of nanoparticles as carriers of enzyme drugs. In certain cases, use of enzymes attached to nanoparticles can help to overcome some of the above problems and improve the prospects of clinical applications of enzyme drugs. Here, we review recent data on the use of nanoparticles as carriers for several clinically important enzyme drugs and discuss advantages and potential limitations of such constructs. While promising preliminary results were obtained with regard to their performance in vitro and in some animal models, further investigations and clinical trials, as well as addressing regulatory issues, are warranted to make these delivery systems suitable for clinical applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) detoxify harmful reactive oxygen species, but the therapeutic utility of AOEs is hindered by inadequate delivery. AOE modification by poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) and encapsulation in PEG-coated liposomes increases the AOE bioavailability and enhances protective effects in animal models. Pluronic-based micelles formed with AOEs show even more potent protective effects. Furthermore, polymeric nanocarriers (PNCs) based on PEG-copolymers protect encapsulated AOEs from proteolysis and improve delivery to the target cells, such as the endothelium lining the vascular lumen. Antibodies to endothelial determinants conjugated to AOEs or AOE carriers provide targeting and intracellular delivery. Targeted liposomes, protein conjugates and magnetic nanoparticles deliver AOEs to sites of vascular oxidative stress in the cardiovascular, pulmonary and nervous systems. Further advances in nanodevices for AOE delivery will provide a basis for the translation of this approach in the clinical domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of acute and chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States is more than 10,000 per year, resulting in 720 cases per million persons enduring permanent disability each year. The economic impact of SCI is estimated to be more than 4 billion dollars annually. Preclinical studies, case reports, and small clinical trials suggest that early treatment may improve neurological recovery. To date, no proven therapeutic modality exists that has demonstrated a positive effect on neurological outcome. Emerging data from recent preclinical and clinical studies offer hope for this devastating condition. This review gives an overview of current basic research and clinical studies for the treatment of SCI.
Neurochemical Research 03/2013; 38(5). DOI:10.1007/s11064-013-0991-6 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among various enzyme-based therapies, enzyme-prodrug therapy (EPT) promises minimized side effects in that it activates non-toxic prodrugs locally where the enzymes are placed. The success of such an approach requires high enzyme stability against both structural denaturation and potential immunogenicity. This work examines the efficiency of nanoparticles for enzyme protection in EPT applications. Specifically, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (HRP-CSNP) were constructed and examined with respect to stability enhancement. HRP-CSNP retained enzyme activity and had improved stability at 37 °C in the presence of a denaturant, urea. The nanoparticles effectively bound to the surface of human breast cancer cell Bcap37 and led to over 80 % cell death when applied with a prodrug indole-3-acetic acid.
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