Impaired inter-hemispheric facilitatory connectivity in schizophrenia
ABSTRACT To investigate the inter-hemispheric connections between the dorsal premotor cortex (dPM) and contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) in schizophrenia.
Sixteen medicated, nine unmedicated schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy age-matched subjects were studied by twin-coil Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. To activate distinct facilitatory and inhibitory transcallosal pathways between dPM and the contralateral M1, the intensity of dPM stimulation was adjusted to be either suprathreshold (110% of resting motor threshold) or subthreshold (80% of active motor threshold). Interstimulus intervals between conditioning stimulus and test stimulus were 6, 8 and 15 ms.
Schizophrenia patients had comparable efficacy of the inhibitory pathway. On the other hand, medicated patients showed less facilitation of contralateral M1 following dPM stimulation at 80% of active motor threshold, at interstimulus interval=8 ms. The individual amount of facilitation induced by dPM conditioning at 80% of active motor threshold at interstimulus interval=8 ms correlated negatively with negative symptoms.
Inter-hemispheric facilitatory dPM-M1 connectivity is selectively altered in schizophrenia.
This study produced evidence that dPM-M1 connectivity is dysfunctional and that correlates with negative symptoms. These results converge with previous studies which strongly hypothesize that inter- and intra-hemispheric connectivity disturbances may play a major role in schizophrenia.
SourceAvailable from: Giacomo Koch[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12/2014; 8:1010. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.01010 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a debilitating mental illness with an elusive pathophysiology. Over the last decade, theories emphasizing cortical dysfunction have received increasing attention to explain the heterogeneous symptoms experienced in SCZ. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive form of brain stimulation that is particularly suited to probing the fidelity of specific excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations in conscious humans. In this study, we review the contribution of TMS in assessing inhibitory and excitatory neuronal populations and their long-range connections in SCZ. In addition, we discuss insights from combined TMS and electroencephalography into the functional consequences of impaired excitation/inhibition on cortical oscillations in SCZ.Schizophrenia Bulletin 05/2013; 40(3). DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt078 · 8.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterised by a complex phenotype including positive, negative, affective and cognitive symptoms. Various theories have been developed to integrate the clinical phenotype into a strong neurobiological framework. One theory describes schizophrenia as a disorder of impaired neural plasticity. Recently, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have garnered much attention to their ability to modulate plasticity and treat schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to introduce the basic physiological principles of conventional non-invasive brain stimulation techniques and to review the available evidence for schizophrenia. Despite promising evidence for efficacy in a large number of clinical trials, we continue to have a rudimentary understanding of the underlying neurobiology. Additional investigation is required to improve the response rates to non-invasive brain stimulation, to reduce the interindividual variability and to improve the understanding of non-invasive brain stimulation in schizophrenia.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 09/2013; 263(8). DOI:10.1007/s00406-013-0446-8 · 3.36 Impact Factor