TDP-43 and FUS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia
ABSTRACT Abnormal intracellular protein aggregates comprise a key characteristic in most neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The seminal discoveries of accumulation of TDP-43 in most cases of ALS and the most frequent form of FTD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions, followed by identification of FUS as the novel pathological protein in a small subset of patients with ALS and various FTD subtypes provide clear evidence that these disorders are related. The creation of a novel molecular classification of ALS and FTD based on the identity of the predominant protein abnormality has, therefore, been possible. The striking functional and structural similarities of TDP-43 and FUS, which are both DNA/RNA binding proteins, imply that abnormal RNA metabolism is a pivotal event, but the mechanisms leading to TDP-43 and FUS accumulation and the resulting neurodegeneration are currently unknown. Nonetheless, TDP-43 and FUS are promising candidates for the development of novel biomarker assays and targeted therapies.
- SourceAvailable from: Kejhal Khursheed[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fused-In-Sarcoma (FUS) is a candidate gene for neurological disorders including motor neurone disease and Parkinson׳s disease in addition to various types of cancer. Recently it has been reported that over expression of FUS causes motor neurone disease in mouse models hence mutations leading to changes in gene expression may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative disease. Genome evolutionary conservation was used to predict important cis-acting DNA regulators of the FUS gene promoter that direct transcription. The putative regulators identified were analysed in reporter gene assays in cells and in chick embryos. Our analysis indicated in addition to regulatory domains 5′ of the transcriptional start site an important regulatory domain resides in intron 1 of the gene itself. This intronic domain functioned both in cell lines and in vivo in the neural tube of the chick embryo including developing motor neurones. Our data suggest the interaction of multiple domains including intronic domains are involved in expression of FUS. A better understanding of the regulation of expression of FUS may give insight into how its stimulus inducible expression may be associated with neurological disorders.Brain Research 11/2014; 1595. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.10.056 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases with overlapping clinical characteristics. They share common genetic causes and pathologic hallmarks such as TDP-43 neuronal accumulations. Recently, exome analysis identified mutations in matrin 3 (MATR3) gene in patients with familial ALS, suggesting a role for this gene in the pathogenesis of the disease. MATR3 is a nuclear matrix protein with DNA and RNA binding domains that interacts with TDP-43. To confirm the contribution of MATR3 to ALS, we studied a French cohort of 153 familial ALS or ALS/FTLD patients, without finding any variant. We conclude that mutations in MATR3 are rare in French familial ALS and ALS with FTLD patients.Neurobiology of Aging 07/2014; 35(12). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.07.016 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal late onset neurological disorder characterized by motor neuron degeneration in the primary motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. The majority of cases are sporadic (SALS) and only 5-10% have a family history (FALS). FALS cases show a high heritability and this has enabled the identification of several genetic triggers, of which mutations in SOD1, FUS, TARDBP and C9ORF72 are the most frequent. While such advances have contributed to our current understanding of the causes of most cases of FALS and their underlying pathophysiological consequences, they only explain a small fraction of SALS with the etiology of most SALS cases remaining unexplained. Here, we review past and current methods used for the identification of FALS and SALS associated genes and propose a risk-based classification for these. We also discuss how the growing number of whole exome/genome sequencing datasets prepared from SALS cases, and control individuals, may reveal novel insights into the genetic etiology of SALS; for instance through revealing increased mutation burden rates across genes or genomic regions that were not previously associated with ALS or through allowing the examination of a potential "oligogenic" mechanism of the disease. Finally we summarize the three most recently discovered 'high risk' genes in ALS.Experimental Neurology 04/2014; 262. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.04.013 · 4.62 Impact Factor