Development of SYBR green-based real-time PCR and duplex nested PCR assays for quantitation and differential detection of species- or type-specific porcine Torque teno viruses
ABSTRACT Porcine Torque teno virus (TTV), a single-stranded circular DNA virus, has been incriminated in swine diseases recently. Multiple infection with porcine TTV species 1 (PTTV1) and species 2 (PTTV2), each consisting of two types (PTTV1a and 1b) or subtypes (PTTV2b and 2c), in a single pig had been reported by our group previously. The present study described three novel assays for quantitation and differential detection of porcine TTV. First, we developed two SYBR green-based real-time PCR assays to quantify viral loads of two porcine TTV species, respectively. The PTTV1- and PTTV2-specific real-time PCR primer sequences were selected to target conserved regions identified by multiple alignments of ten available porcine TTV full-length genomes. Furthermore, by coupling the two singleplex PCR assays, a duplex real-time PCR assay followed by melting curve analysis was established for simultaneous detection and differentiation of PTTV1 and PTTV2. In addition, a type-specific duplex nested PCR was also developed to simultaneously detect and distinguish between the two types, PTTV1a and 1b, in PTTV1 species. These assays provide rapid and practical tools for molecular diagnosis of species- or type-specific porcine TTV.
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ABSTRACT: Technology acceptance research has tended to focus on instrumental beliefs such as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use as drivers of usage intentions, with technology characteristics as major external stimuli. Behavioral sciences and individual psychology, however, suggest that social influences and personal traits such as individual innovativeness are potentially important determinants of adoption as well, and may be a more important element in potential adopters' decisions. This paper models and tests these relationships in non-work settings among several latent constructs such as intention to adopt wireless mobile technology, social influences, and personal innovativeness. Structural equation analysis reveals strong causal relationships between the social influences, personal innovativeness and the perceptual beliefs—usefulness and ease of use, which in turn impact adoption intentions. The paper concludes with some important implications for both theory research and implementation strategies.The Journal of Strategic Information Systems 09/2005; 14(3-14):245-268. DOI:10.1016/j.jsis.2005.07.003 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Porcine Torque teno virus (TTV) has a single-stranded circular DNA genome and is currently classified into a new genus Iotatorquevirus with two species in a newly established family Anelloviridae. Viral DNA of both porcine TTV species (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2) has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States and in Europe. However, the prevalence of specific TTSuV antibodies in pigs remains unknown. In this study, the putative ORF1 capsid protein from TTSuV2 isolate PTTV2c-VA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant ORF1 protein was used as the antigen for the development of Western blot and indirect ELISA to detect TTSuV2-specific IgG antibodies in pig sera. The results revealed a relatively high rate of seropositivity to TTSuV2 in conventional pigs from different sources but not in gnotobiotic pigs. Overall, pigs with undetectable TTSuV2 viral load were more likely to have a lower anti-TTSuV2 antibody level. An analysis of 10 conventional pigs during a 2-month period showed that decreased viral loads or presumed virus clearance were associated with elevated anti-ORF1 IgG antibody levels. Interestingly, porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD)-affected pigs had a significantly lower level of TTSuV2 antibody than PCVAD-unaffected pigs (p<0.01). This is the first study to establish essential serodiagnostic tools for investigation of TTSuV seroprevalence and infection dynamics, which will help elucidate the potential pathogenicity of TTSuV infection in pigs.Virus Research 03/2011; 158(1-2):79-88. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2011.03.013 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of small ruminants and is endemic in Pakistan. In the following study, samples from two outbreaks of PPR in goats have been subjected to laboratory investigations. The Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) genome was detected using both conventional and real-time PCR. Genetic characterization of the local PPRV field isolates was conducted by sequencing 322 bp of the fusion (F) gene and 255 bp of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene clustered samples from both outbreaks into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates, specifically into subcluster 1 along with isolates from Middle East. Analysis of N gene revealed a different pattern. In this case, the Pakistani samples clustered with Chinese, Tajikistani and Iranian isolates, which probably represents the true geographical pattern of virus circulation. This is the first report presenting the phylogenetic tree based on N gene as well as performing a parallel comparison of the trees of F and N gene together from Pakistani isolates. The results of this study shed light on the PPRV population in Pakistan and emphasize the importance of using molecular methods to understand the epidemiology. Such understanding is essential in any efforts to control the number and impact of outbreaks that are occurring in endemic countries such as Pakistan, especially in the current scenario where OIE and FAO are eager to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been achieved for Rinderpest.Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 07/2011; 59(1):85-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01245.x · 3.12 Impact Factor