Volumetric study in the development of paranasal sinuses by CT imaging in Asian: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT The volume of the air cavities in the paranasal sinuses is not only the simplest, but also the most important index for paranasal sinus evaluation. However, few volumetric studies have been performed in all age groups. The purpose of the current study was to outline the normal development of paranasal sinuses in all age groups, and to determine normal adult volumetric values by means of computed tomographic (CT) scan of paranasal sinus using volumetric procedures.
A prospective volumetric CT study was conducted with 260 patients (520 sides) <25 years of age by means of three-dimensional reconstruction.
The frontal sinuses began to pneumatize at 2 years of age, exhibited a faster growth pattern between 6 and 19 years of age, and the mean volume after full growth was 3.46±0.78 cm(3). The maxillary sinuses were pneumatized at birth in all cases, exhibited a monomodal growth pattern increasing until 15 years of age, and the mean volume after full growth was 14.83±1.36 cm(3). The floor of the sinus was the same level as the floor of the nasal cavity was between 7 and 15 years of age. The ethmoid sinuses exhibited a faster initial tendency to increase until 7 years of age, were completed by 15-16 years of age, and the mean volume after full growth was 4.51±0.92 cm(3). The sphenoid sinuses exhibited a growth spurt between 6 and 10 years of age, were completed by 15 years of age, and the mean volume after full growth was 3.47±0.93 cm(3).
The results of this study are presented to provide the basis for an objective normal volume of sinus development and for studies involving diseases of the sinuses.
Article: Stereolithographic biomodelling to create tangible hard copies of the ethmoidal labyrinth air cells based on the visible human project.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rapid prototyping (RP), or stereolithography, is a new clinical application area, which is used to obtain accurate three-dimensional physical replicas of complex anatomical structures. The aim of this study was to create tangible hard copies of the ethmoidal labyrinth air cells (ELACs) with stereolithographic biomodelling. The visible human dataset (VHD) was used as the input imaging data. The Surfdriver software package was applied to these images to reconstruct the ELACs as three-dimensional DXF (data exchange file) models. These models were post-processed in 3D-Doctor software for virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and STL (Standard Triangulation Language) formats. Stereolithographic replicas were manufactured in a rapid prototyping machine by using the STL format. The total number of ELACs was 21. The dimensions of the ELACs on the right and left sides were 52.91 x 13.00 x 28.68 mm and 53.79 x 12.42 x 28.55 mm, respectively. The total volume of the ELACs was 4771.1003 mm(3). The mean ELAC distance was 27.29 mm from the nasion and 71.09 mm from the calotte topologically. In conclusion, the combination of Surfdriver and 3D-Doctor could be effectively used for manufacturing 3D solid models from serial sections of anatomical structures. Stereolithographic anatomical models provide an innovative and complementary tool for students, researchers, and surgeons to apprehend these anatomical structures tangibly. The outcomes of these attempts can provide benefits in terms of the visualization, perception, and interpretation of the structures in anatomy teaching and prior to surgical interventions.Folia morphologica 02/2011; 70(1):33-40. · 0.52 Impact Factor
Article: Simulation of near-infrared light absorption considering individual head and prefrontal cortex anatomy: implications for optical neuroimaging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an established optical neuroimaging method for measuring functional hemodynamic responses to infer neural activation. However, the impact of individual anatomy on the sensitivity of fNIRS measuring hemodynamics within cortical gray matter is still unknown. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and structural MRI of 23 healthy subjects (mean age: 25.0±2.8 years), we characterized the individual distribution of tissue-specific NIR-light absorption underneath 24 prefrontal fNIRS channels. We, thereby, investigated the impact of scalp-cortex distance (SCD), frontal sinus volume as well as sulcal morphology on gray matter volumes (V(gray)) traversed by NIR-light, i.e. anatomy-dependent fNIRS sensitivity. The NIR-light absorption between optodes was distributed describing a rotational ellipsoid with a mean penetration depth of (23.6±0.7) mm considering the deepest 5% of light. Of the detected photon packages scalp and bone absorbed (96.4±9.7)% and V(gray) absorbed (3.1±1.8)% of the energy. The mean V(gray) volume (1.1±0.4) cm3 was negatively correlated (r=-.76) with the SCD and frontal sinus volume (r=-.57) and was reduced by 41.5% in subjects with relatively large compared to small frontal sinus. Head circumference was significantly positively correlated with the mean SCD (r=.46) and the traversed frontal sinus volume (r=.43). Sulcal morphology had no significant impact on V(gray). Our findings suggest to consider individual SCD and frontal sinus volume as anatomical factors impacting fNIRS sensitivity. Head circumference may represent a practical measure to partly control for these sources of error variance.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e26377. · 4.09 Impact Factor