AMPK-induced activation of Akt by AICAR is mediated by IGF-1R dependent and independent mechanisms in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1601 N,W, 12th Avenue, Miami, FL 33136 USA. .
Journal of Molecular Signaling 09/2010; 5:15. DOI: 10.1186/1750-2187-5-15
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) diagnosed with resistant phenotypes and those who relapse have a dismal prognosis for cure. In search for novel treatment strategies, we identified the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a potential drug target based on its effects on cell growth and survival. We have shown previously that AICAR-induced AMPK activation also induced a compensatory survival mechanism via PI3K/Akt signaling.
In the present study, we further investigated the downstream signaling induced by AMPK activation in ALL cells. We found that AICAR-induced AMPK activation resulted in up-regulation of P-Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) and decrease of P-mTOR (Ser2448) expression and downstream signaling. We determined that activation of P-Akt (Thr308) was mediated by AMPK-induced IGF-1R activation via phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser794. Inhibition of IGF-1R signaling using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor HNMPA(AM)3 resulted in significant decrease in P-IRS-1 (Ser794) and P-Akt (Thr308). Co-treatment of AICAR plus HNMPA(AM)3 prevented AMPK-induced up-regulation of P-Akt (Thr308) but did not alter the activation of P-Akt (Ser473). Inhibition of AMPK using compound-C resulted in decreased P-Akt expression at both residues, suggesting a central role for AMPK in Akt activation. In addition, inhibition of IGF-1R signaling in ALL cells resulted in cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Additional Western blots revealed that P-IGF-1R (Tyr1131) and P-IRS-1 (Ser794) levels were higher in NALM6 (Bp-ALL) than CEM (T-ALL), and found differences in IGF-1R signaling within Bp-ALL cell line models NALM6, REH (TEL-AML1, [t(12;21)]), and SupB15 (BCR-ABL, [t(9;22)]). In these models, higher sensitivity to IGF-1R inhibitors correlated with increased levels of IGF-1R expression. Combined therapy simultaneously targeting IGF-1R, AMPK, Akt, and mTOR pathways resulted in synergistic growth inhibition and cell death.
Our study demonstrates that AMPK activates Akt through IGF-1R dependent and independent mechanisms. Co-targeting IGF-1R and related downstream metabolic and oncogenic signaling pathways represent a potential strategy for future translation into novel ALL therapies.


Available from: Gilles M Leclerc, May 29, 2015
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and elevated hepatic glucose output. Over 350 million people worldwide have T2D, and the International Diabetes Federation projects that this number will increase to nearly 600 million by 2035. There is a great need for more effective treatments for maintaining glucose homeostasis and improving insulin sensitivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activation elicits insulin-sensitizing effects, making it an ideal therapeutic target for T2D. AMPK is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated when cellular energy levels are low, and it signals to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscles, fatty acid oxidation in adipose (and other) tissues, and reduces hepatic glucose production. There is substantial evidence suggesting that AMPK is dysregulated in animals and humans with metabolic syndrome or T2D, and that AMPK activation (physiological or pharmacological) can improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. Numerous pharmacological agents, natural compounds, and hormones are known to activate AMPK, either directly or indirectly - some of which (for example, metformin and thiazolidinediones) are currently used to treat T2D. This paper will review the regulation of the AMPK pathway and its role in T2D, some of the known AMPK activators and their mechanisms of action, and the potential for future improvements in targeting AMPK for the treatment of T2D.
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 06/2014; 7:241-53. DOI:10.2147/DMSO.S43731
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of death in the world and therapy to reduce injury is still needed. The uncoupling of glycolysis and glucose oxidation induces lactate accumulation during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Cell death occurs and finally leads to myocardial infarction. Caffeic acid, one of the major phenolic constituents in nature, acts as an antioxidant. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a new derivative of caffeic acid, was synthesized by our team. We aimed to investigate the effect of PLCA on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and on myocardial I/R in rats. Cardiomyocytes were isolated and subjected to 6 h hypoxia followed by 18 h reperfusion. PLCA (0.1 to 3 μM) and metformin (30 μM) were added before hypoxia was initiated. PLCA at 1 μM and metformin at 30 μM exerted similar effects on the improvement of cell viability and the alleviation of cell apoptosis in NRVM after H/R. PLCA promoted p-AMPK, p-AKT, and GLUT4 upregulation to induce a cardioprotective effect in both cell and animal model. The accumulation of cardiac lactate was attenuated by PLCA during myocardial I/R, and infarct size was smaller in rats treated with PLCA (1 mg/kg) than in those treated with caffeic acid (1 mg/kg). AMPK and AKT are synergistically activated by PLCA, which lead facilities glucose utilization, thereby attenuating lactate accumulation and cell death. The cardioprotective dose of PLCA was lower than those of metformin and caffeic acid. We provide a new insight into this potential drug for the treatment of myocardial I/R injury.
    Journal of Biomedical Science 12/2015; 22(1):18. DOI:10.1186/s12929-015-0125-3 · 2.74 Impact Factor