Field tests demonstrating reduced activity of ivermectin and moxidectin against small strongyles in horses on 14 farms in Central Kentucky in 2007-2009.
ABSTRACT Efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) against small strongyles was evaluated in horses (n=363) in field tests on 14 farms in Central Kentucky between 2007 and 2009. Most of the horses were yearlings but a few were weanlings and mares. The number of horses treated with IVM was 255 and those treated with MOX was 108. Horses on six farms were allotted into two groups. One group was treated with each of the two drugs, whereas horses on the other eight farms were treated with only one of the two drugs--IVM on six farms and MOX on two farms. Strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) compared to initial use of IVM and MOX returned almost twice as quickly after treatment of horses on all of the farms. IVM has been used much more extensively in this geographical area than MOX. Reduced activity of MOX was evident even on farms with rare or no apparent previous use of MOX but with probable extensive use of IVM.
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ABSTRACT: To determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostome nematodes of horses in the southern United States. Cross-sectional study. 786 horses on 44 farms and stables in Georgia, South Carolina, Florida, Kentucky, and Louisiana. Fecal egg count (FEC) reduction tests were performed on 44 large farms and stables. Horses on each farm were treated with an oral paste formulation of fenbendazole, oxibendazole, pyrantel pamoate, or ivermectin at recommended label dosages. A mixed linear model was fitted to the percentage reduction in FEC, accounting for differences among farms, states, ages, treatments, and treatment by state interactions. By use of a conservative measure of resistance (< 80% reduction), the percentage of farms with anthelmintic-resistant cyathostomes was 97.7%, 0%, 53.5%, and 40.5% for fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate, respectively. Mean percentage reductions in FEC for all farms were 24.8%, 99.9%, 73.8%, and 78.6% for fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate, respectively. Pairwise contrasts between states for each treatment revealed that in almost all instances, there were no significant differences in results between states. The prevalence of resistance found in this study was higher than that reported previously, suggesting that anthelmintic resistance in equine cyathostomes is becoming a major problem. Furthermore, data from these 5 southern states, which are geographically and physiographically distinct, were remarkably similar. This suggests that drug resistance in cyathostomes is highly prevalent throughout the entire southern United States and probably nationwide.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10/2004; 225(6):903-10. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Possible anthelmintic resistance on a breeding farm where a rapid rotation anthelmintic programme had been implemented for 9 years was investigated. Cyathostomins resistant to fenbendazole and pyrantel were documented by faecal worm egg count reduction test (FWECRT). To 1) manage small strongyle transmission in a herd of horses in which resistance to both pyrantel pamoate and fenbendazole was identified and thereby reduce the risk of clinical disease in the individual animal, 2) monitor the change in resistance patterns over time and 3) monitor the efficacy of ivermectin over the study period. Targeted ivermectin treatment of horses on the farm was instituted for mature horses with faecal worm egg counts (FWEC) > 200 eggs/g (epg) and for horses < age 2 years with FWEC > 100 epg. Over a 30 month period, targeted ivermectin treatment achieved acceptable control in mares, as judged by FWEC, and improved control of patent cyathostome infection in consecutive foal crops. Egg reappearance time (ERT) after treatment with ivermectin was < 8 weeks in mares and foals more frequently in the second year of the study than in the first year. Numbers of anthelmintic treatments were reduced by 77.6 and 533% in the mare and foal group, respectively. Targeted ivermectin treatment may be an economically viable method of managing multiple drug resistant cyathostominosis. Use of ivermectin should be monitored closely for development of resistance.Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2003; 35(3):246-51. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Field studies (n=6) were completed on evaluation of activity of ivermectin (200 microg/kg) paste formulation against small strongyles in horses (foals, yearlings, and older animals) on a farm (Farm MC) in Central Kentucky in late 2006 and during 2007. A girth tape was used to estimate body weights which were then used to calculate the proper dose rate of ivermectin. The foals, yearlings, and some of the older horses were born and raised on the farm. However, most of the older horses which were not raised on the farm had been there for several years. The horse herd was given ivermectin exclusively, usually four times a year, since 1990. An exception was that during the foal's period of life fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and oxibendazole were given occasionally besides ivermectin. Efficacy of drug activity was determined by pretreatment and posttreatment counts of strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs). Culture of strongyle eggs in feces from some of the horses showed that only small strongyle larvae were present. The research included two studies (A and B) in foals (n=24) and four studies (C, D, E, and F) in yearlings (n=13) alone or with older horses (n=10). For each of the studies (B through F), there was a treated and a nontreated group. These groups were switched for each treatment, i.e., the treated group in one study was the nontreated group in the next study and vice versa. Eggs per gram of feces counts were determined at 1- or 2-week posttreatment intervals for 4 weeks for study A and 6 weeks for studies B through F. Also, for studies B, E, and F, counts of EPGs were done either two or three times during the third week posttreatment. The studies showed a similar posttreatment pattern of strongyle EPG counts beginning to return at about 4 weeks and increasing at 5 and 6 weeks posttreatment. Two horses in study E and one in study F had low EPG values toward the end of the third week posttreatment. The results of this ivermectin investigation showed that the strongyle EPG counts started returning about twice as quickly post-ivermectin-treatment of horses than when the drug was first marketed in the early 1980s.Parasitology Research 05/2008; 103(1):209-15. · 2.85 Impact Factor