Mus spretus SEG/Pas mice resist virulent Yersinia pestis, under multigenic control.
ABSTRACT Laboratory mice are well known to be highly susceptible to virulent strains of Yersinia pestis in experimental models of bubonic plague. We have found that Mus spretus-derived SEG/Pas (SEG) mice are exceptionally resistant to virulent CO92 and 6/69 wild type strains. Upon subcutaneous injection of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU), 90% of females and 68% of males survived, compared with only an 8% survival rate for both male and female C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, half of the SEG mice survived a challenge of up to 10(7) CFU. The time required for mortality was similar between B6 and SEG, suggesting that survival is dependent on early rather than late processes. The analysis of 322 backcross mice identified three significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 3, 4 and 6, with dominant SEG protective alleles. Each QTL increased the survival rate by approximately 20%. The three QTLs function additively, thereby accounting for 67% of the difference between the parental phenotypes. Mice heterozygous for the three QTLs were just as resistant as SEG mice to Y. pestis challenge. The SEG strain therefore offers an invaluable opportunity to unravel mechanisms and underlying genetic factors of resistance against Y. pestis infection.
SourceAvailable from: Jean-Jacques Panthier
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. This study follows on from an AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar. We successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with a plague resistance phenotype. Searching these sequences in the genome of the closely related species Rattus norvegicus assigned them to 14 genomic regions, revealing a random distribution of outliers in the genome (no clustering). We compared these results with those of an in silico AFLP study of the R. norvegicus genome, which showed that outlier sequences could not have been inferred by this method in R. rattus (only four of the 15 sequences were predicted). However, in silico analysis allowed the prediction of AFLP markers distribution and the estimation of homoplasy rates, confirming its potential utility for designing AFLP studies in nonmodel species. The 14 genomic regions surrounding AFLP outliers (less than 300 kb from the marker) contained 75 genes encoding proteins of known function, including nine involved in immune function and pathogen defence. We identified the two interleukin 1 genes (Il1a and Il1b) that share homology with an antigen of Y. pestis, as the best candidates for genes subject to plague-mediated natural selection. At least six other genes known to be involved in proinflammatory pathways may also be affected by plague-mediated selection.Molecular Ecology 12/2012; DOI:10.1111/mec.12115 · 5.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Natural variation for LPS-induced lethal inflammation in mice is useful for identifying new genes that regulate sepsis, which could form the basis for novel therapies for systemic inflammation in humans. Here we report that LPS resistance of the inbred mouse strain SPRET/Ei, previously reported to depend on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), maps to the distal region of the X-chromosome. The GR-inducible gene Tsc22d3, encoding the protein Gilz and located in the critical region on the X-chromosome, showed a higher expressed SPRET/Ei allele, regulated in cis. Higher Gilz levels were causally related to reduced inflammation, as shown with knockdown and overexpression studies in macrophages. Transient overexpression of Gilz by hydrodynamic plasmid injection confirmed that Gilz protects mice against endotoxemia Our data strongly suggest that Gilz is responsible for the LPS resistance of SPRET/Ei mice and that it could become a treatment option for sepsis.EMBO Molecular Medicine 03/2013; DOI:10.1002/emmm.201201683 · 8.25 Impact Factor