Article

Risk Factors for Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis Among Current Smokers

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
Preventive Cardiology 09/2010; 13(4):166-71. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-7141.2010.00068.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study characterized the determinants of carotid atherosclerosis in a large contemporary sample of current smokers. Associations between risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid plaque presence were determined by multivariable regression. Participants included 1504 current smokers (58% female) who were a median (interquartile range) of 44.7 (38-53) years old and smoked 25 (15-40) pack-years; 55% had plaque. Pack-years, age, male sex, nonwhite race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, small low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and total high-density lipoproteins were independently associated with CIMT (model R(2) =0.434, P<.001). Pack-years (odds ratio [OR], 1.14 per 10 pack-years; P=.001), age (OR, 1.75 per 10 years; P<.001), body mass index (OR, 0.91 per 5 kg/m(2) ; P=.035), and small LDLs (OR, 1.11 per 100 nmol/L; P<.001) were independently associated with carotid plaque presence (model χ(2) =210.7, P<.001). The association between pack-years and carotid plaque was stronger in women (OR, 1.09 per 10 pack-years, P(interaction) =.018).

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Megan E Piper, Aug 06, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
102 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor embolism occurs in 30 to 50% of all cases of cardiac myxoma, but the causes are still uncertain. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play a crucial role in plaque instability and aortic aneurysm development, in addition to cancer and heart failure. To determine whether MMP activity contributes to tumor embolism, we examined 27 left atrium-sided myxomas, 10 of which showed clinical signs of peripheral embolism. Immunohistochemistry (in all cases) and Western blotting, and in situ and in-gel zymography (in four embolic and six nonembolic consecutive tumors) demonstrated higher expression and activity of MT1-MMP, pro-MMP-2, and pro-MMP-9 in embolic myxomas, whereas pro-MMP-1, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 levels were similar to those of nonembolic tumors. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that increased MMP activity was due, at least in part, to increased transcription and that TIMP-2 transcripts increased in embolic myxomas. In vitro, embolic tumor cells retained higher MT1-MMP and pro-MMP-2 levels in basal conditions and after stimulation with interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. Increased MMP synthesis and release correlated with enhanced ECM degradation products containing glycosaminoglycan chains in embolic myxoma tissue. Our results strongly suggest that MMP overexpression may contribute to an excessive degradation of tumor ECM and increase the risk of embolism in cardiac myxomas.
    American Journal Of Pathology 07/2005; 166(6):1619-28. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62472-8 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on lipoproteins have not been studied in a large contemporary group of smokers. This study was designed to determine the effects of smoking cessation on lipoproteins. this was a 1-year, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Fasting nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy lipoprotein profiles were obtained before and 1 year after the target smoking cessation date. The effects of smoking cessation and predictors of changes in lipoproteins after 1 year were identified by multivariable regression. the 1,504 current smokers were (mean [SD]) 45.4 (11.3) years old and smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes per day at baseline. Of the 923 adult smokers who returned at 1 year, 334 (36.2%) had quit smoking. Despite gaining more weight (4.6 kg [5.7] vs 0.7 kg [5.1], P < .001], abstainers had increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (2.4 [8.3] vs 0.1 [8.8] mg/dL, P < .001), total HDL (1.0 [4.6] vs -0.3 micromol/L [5.0], P < .001), and large HDL (0.6 [2.2] vs 0.1 [2.1] micromol/L, P = .003) particles compared with continuing smokers. Significant changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and particles were not observed. After adjustment, abstinence from smoking (P < .001) was independently associated with increases in HDL-C and total HDL particles. These effects were stronger in women. despite weight gain, smoking cessation improved HDL-C, total HDL, and large HDL particles, especially in women. Smoking cessation did not affect LDL or LDL size. Increases in HDL may mediate part of the reduced cardiovascular disease risk observed after smoking cessation.
    American heart journal 01/2011; 161(1):145-51. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.09.023 · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of carotid and femoral artery atherosclerotic plaque in a community-based population of asymptomatic African American and white men and women, with an age range of 29 to 51 years, and the potential relations with cardiovascular risk factors. Between 2007 and 2010, 914 subjects, 58% women and 69% white, who were part of the Bogalusa Heart Study, an ongoing study of a southern biracial community in Bogalusa, Louisiana, were followed up from childhood through adulthood and assessed for plaque formation using ultrasound. Of the total number of subjects, those with a history of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events were excluded. Plaque prevalence ranged from 8% to 14%, with greater frequency in white men. Plaque formation was also associated with smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, age, and white race, in descending order. In this population, studied sequentially since 1973, the presence of plaque correlated with widely recognized cardiovascular risk factors, although we did not detect significant contributions from either obesity or elevated lipids, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is possible that interventions, such as diet alteration and statin therapy, may have a positive impact on these potential contributors to plaque formation, and hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking remain of great importance.
    Southern medical journal 12/2011; 104(12):803-8. DOI:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318236c35c · 1.12 Impact Factor
Show more