The CHESS spectral survey of star forming regions: Peering into the protostellar shock L1157-B1. II. Shock dynamics

Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2010; DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014630
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Context. The outflow driven by the low-mass class 0 protostar L1157 is the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright bowshock B1 in the southern outflow lobe is a privileged testbed of magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) shock models, for which dynamical and chemical processes are strongly interdependent. Aims: We present the first results of the unbiased spectral survey of the L1157-B1 bowshock, obtained in the framework of the key program “Chemical HErschel Surveys of star forming regions” (CHESS). The main aim is to trace the warm and chemically enriched gas and to infer the excitation conditions in the shock region. Methods: The CO 5-4 and o-H2O 110-101 lines have been detected at high-spectral resolution in the unbiased spectral survey of the HIFI-band 1b spectral window (555-636 GHz), presented by Codella et al. in this volume. Complementary ground-based observations in the submm window help establish the origin of the emission detected in the main-beam of HIFI and the physical conditions in the shock. Results: Both lines exhibit broad wings, which extend to velocities much higher than reported up to now. We find that the molecular emission arises from two regions with distinct physical conditions : an extended, warm (100 K), dense (3 × 105 cm-3) component at low-velocity, which dominates the water line flux in Band 1; a secondary component in a small region of B1 (a few arcsec) associated with high-velocity, hot (>400 K) gas of moderate density ((1.0-3.0) × 104 cm-3), which appears to dominate the flux of the water line at 179μm observed with PACS. The water abundance is enhanced by two orders of magnitude between the low- and the high-velocity component, from 8 × 10-7 up to 8 × 10-5. The properties of the high-velocity component agree well with the predictions of steady-state C-shock models. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

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    ABSTRACT: We have developed further the technique of time-dependent modelling of magnetohydrodynamic shock waves, with a view to interpreting the molecular line emission from outflow sources. The extensively observed source L1157 B1 was chosen as an exemplar of the application of this technique. The dynamical age of the shock wave model was varied in the range 500 ≤t≤ 5000 yr, with the best fit to the observed line intensities being obtained for t= 1000 yr; this is of the same order as the dynamical age derived by Gueth, Guilloteau & Bachiller from their observations of L1157 B1. The emission line spectra of H2, CO, SiO, ortho- and para-H2O, ortho- and para-NH3, and A- and E-type CH3OH were calculated in parallel with the dynamical and chemical parameters of the model, using the 'large velocity gradient' (LVG) approximation to the line transfer problem. We compared the predictions of the models with the observed intensities of emission lines of H2, CO, SiO, ortho-H2O, ortho-NH3 and CH3OH, which include recent Herschel satellite measurements. In the case of SiO, we show (in Appendix A) that extrapolations of the collisional rate coefficients beyond the range of kinetic temperature for which they were originally calculated lead to spurious rotational line intensities and profiles. The computed emission-line spectra of SiO, NH3 and CH3OH are shown to depend on the assumed initial composition of the grain mantles, from whence they are released, by sputtering in the shock wave, into the gas phase. The dependence of the model predictions on the adopted form of the grain-size distribution is investigated in Appendix B; the corresponding integral line intensities are given in tabular form, for a range of C-type shock speeds, in the online Supporting Information.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2012; 421(4):2786-2797. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20481.x · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a complete census of molecular ions with an abundance larger than 1e-10 in the protostellar shock L1157-B1 by means of an unbiased high-sensitivity survey obtained with the IRAM-30m and Herschel/HIFI. By means of an LVG radiative transfer code the gas physical conditions and fractional abundances of molecular ions are derived. The latter are compared with estimates of steady-state abundances in the cloud and their evolution in the shock calculated with the chemical model Astrochem. We detect emission from HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, HCS+, and, for the first time in a shock, from HOCO+, and SO+. The bulk of the emission peaks at blueshifted velocity, ~ 0.5-3 km/s with respect to systemic, has a width of ~ 4-8 km/s, and is associated with the outflow cavities (T_kin ~ 20-70 K, n(H2) ~ 1e5 cm-3). Observed HCO+ and N2H+ abundances are in agreement with steady-state abundances in the cloud and with their evolution in the compressed and heated gas in the shock for cosmic rays ionization rate Z = 3e-16 s-1. HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ observed abundances, instead, are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than predicted in the cloud; on the other hand they are strongly enhanced on timescales shorter than the shock age (~2000 years) if CO2, S or H2S, and OCS are sputtered off the dust grains in the shock. The performed analysis indicates that HCO+ and N2H+ are a fossil record of pre-shock gas in the outflow cavity, while HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ are effective shock tracers and can be used to infer the amount of CO2 and sulphur-bearing species released from dust mantles in the shock. The observed HCS+ (and CS) abundance indicates that OCS should be one of the main sulphur carrier on grain mantles. However, the OCS abundance required to fit the observations is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Further studies are required to fully understand the chemistry of sulphur-bearing species.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; 565. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322928 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have computed C- and J-type models of shock waves in molecular outflow sources. In addition to the (optically thin) emission line spectrum of molecular hydrogen, the spectra of CO, OH, SiO, H2O and NH3 were computed by means of the large velocity gradient approximation. We find that the intensities of the OH lines are particularly sensitive to the character (C- or J-type) of the shock wave. The results of these computations were used to guide the interpretation of the spectrum of the outflow source NGC 1333 IRAS 4B, recently observed by Herschel/PACS and the Spitzer satellites. We find that the best overall fit to the spectrum of this object is provided by quasi-time-dependent (CJ-type) models, which have both C- and J-type characteristics; the dynamical age of the emitting region is found to be of the order of 102 yr. The principal limitation to the robustness of the predictions of the current model relate to the possible effects of dust on the dynamical and thermal profiles of the gas. Specifically, the shattering and vaporization of grains, which can enhance the total grain cross-section, have not been taken into account. Furthermore, there remain significant uncertainties relating to the rate of reformation of H2 molecules, on dust grains, at the high gas kinetic temperatures at which this process occurs in the shock wave.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2013; 436(3):2143-2150. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1720 · 5.23 Impact Factor


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