Biogenesis of thylakoid networks in angiosperms: knowns and unknowns.
ABSTRACT Aerobic life on Earth depends on oxygenic photosynthesis. This fundamentally important process is carried out within an elaborate membranous system, called the thylakoid network. In angiosperms, thylakoid networks are constructed almost from scratch by an intricate, light-dependent process in which lipids, proteins, and small organic molecules are assembled into morphologically and functionally differentiated, three-dimensional lamellar structures. In this review, we summarize the major events that occur during this complex, largely elusive process, concentrating on those that are directly involved in network formation and potentiation and highlighting gaps in our knowledge, which, as hinted by the title, are substantial.
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ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis ubiquitin ligases ATL31 and homologue ATL6 control the carbon/nitrogen nutrient and pathogen responses. A mutant with the loss-of-function of both atl31 and atl6 developed light intensity-dependent pale-green true leaves, whereas the single knockout mutants did not. Plastid ultrastructure and Blue Native-PAGE analyses revealed that pale-green leaves contain abnormal plastid structure with highly reduced levels of thylakoid proteins. In contrast, the pale-green leaves of the atl31/atl6 mutant showed normal Fv/Fm. In the pale-green leaves of the atl31/atl6, the expression of HEMA1, which encodes the key enzyme for 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis, the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, was markedly down-regulated. The expression of key transcription factor GLK1, which directly promotes HEMA1 transcription, was also significantly decreased in atl31/atl6 mutant. Finally, application of 5-aminolevulinic acid to the atl31/atl6 mutants resulted in recovery to a green phenotype. Taken together, these findings indicate that the 5-aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis step was inhibited through the down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis-related genes in the pale-green leaves of atl31/atl6 mutant.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117662. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117662 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years many advances have been made to obtain insight into chloroplast biogenesis and development. In plants several plastids types exist such as the proplastid (which is the progenitor of all plastids), leucoplasts (group of colourless plastids important for storage including elaioplasts (lipids), amyloplasts (starch) or proteinoplasts (proteins)), chromoplasts (yellow to orange-coloured due to carotenoids, in flowers or in old leaves as gerontoplasts), and the green chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are indispensable for plant development; not only by performing photosynthesis and thus rendering the plant photoautotrophic, but also for biochemical processes (which in some instances can also take place in other plastids types), such as the synthesis of pigments, lipids, and plant hormones and sensing environmental stimuli. Although we understand many aspects of these processes there are gaps in our understanding of the establishment of functional chloroplasts and their regulation. Why is that so? Even though chloroplast function is comparable in all plants and most of the algae, ferns and moss, detailed analyses have revealed many differences, specifically with respect to its biogenesis. As an update to our prior review on the genetic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis and development  herein we will focus on recent advances in Angiosperms (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants) that provide novel insights and highlight the challenges and prospects for unravelling the regulation of chloroplast biogenesis specifically during the establishment of the young plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2015.02.003 · 4.83 Impact Factor
Article: Biogenesis of thylakoid membranes.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thylakoids mediate photosynthetic electron transfer and represent one of the most elaborate energy-transducing membrane systems. Despite our detailed knowledge of its structure and function, much remains to be learned about how the machinery is put together. The concerted synthesis and assembly of lipids, proteins and low-molecular-weight cofactors like pigments and transition metal ions requires a high level of spatiotemporal coordination. While increasing numbers of assembly factors are being functionally characterized, the principles that govern how thylakoid membrane maturation is organized in space are just starting to emerge. In both cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, distinct production lines for the fabrication of photosynthetic complexes, in particular photosystem II, have been identified. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.