How I treat pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
- Ugeskrift for laeger 03/2007; 169(6):500-3.
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ABSTRACT: To conduct a randomized phase II trial of dose-intense gemcitabine using a standard 30-minute infusion or the fixed dose rate (FDR) infusion (10 mg/m2/min) in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In this prospective trial, patients with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with 2,200 mg/m2 gemcitabine over 30 minutes (standard arm) or 1,500 mg/m2 gemcitabine over 150 minutes (FDR arm) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 4-week cycle. The primary end point of this trial was time to treatment failure. Secondary end points included time to progression, median survival, safety, and pharmacokinetic studies of gemcitabine. Ninety-two patients were enrolled onto this study; 91% of the patients had metastatic disease. Time to treatment failure was comparable in both treatment groups; however, the median survival for all patients was 5.0 months in the standard arm and 8.0 months in the FDR arm (P =.013). For patients with metastases, the median survival was 4.9 months in the standard arm and 7.3 months in FDR arm (P =.094). The 1- and 2-year survival rates for all patients were 9% (standard arm) versus 28.8% (FDR; P =.014) and 2.2% (standard arm) versus 18.3% (FDR; P =.007), respectively. Patients in the FDR infusion arm experienced consistently more hematologic toxicity. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated a two-fold increase in intracellular gemcitabine triphosphate concentration in the FDR arm (P =.046). Pharmacokinetic and clinical data in this trial supports the continued evaluation of the FDR infusion strategy with gemcitabine.Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2003; 21(18):3402-8. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have a poor prognosis and there have been no improvements in survival since the introduction of gemcitabine in 1996. Pancreatic tumors often overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (HER1/EGFR) and this is associated with a worse prognosis. We studied the effects of adding the HER1/EGFR-targeted agent erlotinib to gemcitabine in patients with unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive standard gemcitabine plus erlotinib (100 or 150 mg/d orally) or gemcitabine plus placebo in a double-blind, international phase III trial. The primary end point was overall survival. A total of 569 patients were randomly assigned. Overall survival based on an intent-to-treat analysis was significantly prolonged on the erlotinib/gemcitabine arm with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99; P = .038, adjusted for stratification factors; median 6.24 months v 5.91 months). One-year survival was also greater with erlotinib plus gemcitabine (23% v 17%; P = .023). Progression-free survival was significantly longer with erlotinib plus gemcitabine with an estimated HR of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.92; P = .004). Objective response rates were not significantly different between the arms, although more patients on erlotinib had disease stabilization. There was a higher incidence of some adverse events with erlotinib plus gemcitabine, but most were grade 1 or 2. To our knowledge, this randomized phase III trial is the first to demonstrate statistically significantly improved survival in advanced pancreatic cancer by adding any agent to gemcitabine. The recommended dose of erlotinib with gemcitabine for this indication is 100 mg/d.Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2007; 25(15):1960-6. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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