G protein coupled receptors as allosteric proteins and the role of allosteric modulators
GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research (Impact Factor: 2.28). 10/2010; 30(5):313-21. DOI: 10.3109/10799893.2010.503964
Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) are proteins that convey signals through changes in conformation. These conformations are stabilized by external molecules (i.e. agonists, antagonists, modulators) and act upon other bodies (termed 'guests') which can be other molecules in the extracellular space, or proteins along the plane of the membrane (receptor oligomerization) or signaling proteins in the cytosol (i.e. G protein, β-arrestin). These elements comprise allosteric systems and a great deal of 7TMR pharmacology can be considered in terms of allosteric behavior. Allosteric ligands acting on 7TMRs possess four unique behaviors that can be valuable therapeutically; (1) the ability to alter the interaction of very large proteins, (2) probe dependence, (3) saturable effect, and (4) induction of separate changes in affinity and efficacy of other ligands. Two of these behaviors (namely probe dependence for CCR5-based HIV-1 entry inhibitors and functional selectivity for biased agonism) will be highlighted with examples.
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- "Monod (1979) defined allostery as 'the second secret of life' since allostery could be considered important second only to the genetic code (Fenton, 2008), and as mentioned above and discussed in previous papers, the basic phenomenon mediating RRI is allosterism (see Agnati et al., 2005b, 2010a; Kenakin et al., 2010). Allostery, or a 'different shape', according to the classical view, involves coupling of conformational changes between two widely separated binding sites in a protein; hence, allostery allows an extraordinary functional plasticity to proteins, resulting as a crucial mechanism for living cells. "
ABSTRACT: Intercellular and intracellular communication processes consist of signals and recognition/decoding apparatuses of these signals. In humans, the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest family of cell surface receptors. More than 30 years ago, it has been proposed that GPCR could form dimers or higher-order oligomers (receptor mosaics [RMs] at the plasma membrane level and receptor-receptor interactions [RRIs] have been proposed as a new integrative mechanism for chemical signals impinging on cell plasma membranes). The basic phenomena involved in RRIs are allostery and cooperativity of membrane receptors, and the present paper provides basic information concerning their relevance for the integrative functions of RMs. In this context, the possible role of iso-receptor RM is discussed (with a special focus on dopamine receptor subtypes and on some of the RMs they form with other dopamine iso-receptors), and it is proposed that two types of cooperativity, namely, homotropic and heterotropic cooperativity, could allow distinguishing two types of functionally different RMs. From a general point of view, the presence of iso-receptors and their topological organization within RMs allow the use of a reduced number of signals for the intercellular communication processes, since the target cells can recognize and decode the same signal in different ways. This theoretical aspect is further analyzed here by means of an analogy with artificial information systems. Thus, it is suggested that the 'multiplexer' and 'demultiplexer' concepts could, at least in part, model the role of RMs formed by iso-receptors in the information handling by the cell.Reviews in the neurosciences 09/2015; DOI:10.1515/revneuro-2015-0024 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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- "Therefore , fluorine substitution may prove a good first tier strategy for the optimization of hit compounds . Selecting hit compounds with the combination of both tractable SAR and encouraging physicochemical properties has proven successful ( Kenakin and Miller , 2010 ) . It is essen - tial to fully characterize lead compounds using radioligand binding to establish in vitro receptor interaction . "
ABSTRACT: The discovery of allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a promising new strategy with potential for developing novel treatments for a variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Traditional drug discovery efforts targeting GPCRs have focused on developing ligands for orthosteric sites which bind endogenous ligands. Allosteric modulators target a site separate from the orthosteric site to modulate receptor function. These allosteric agents can either potentiate (positive allosteric modulator, PAM) or inhibit (negative allosteric modulator, NAM) the receptor response and often provide much greater subtype selectivity than do orthosteric ligands for the same receptors. Experimental evidence has revealed more nuanced pharmacological modes of action of allosteric modulators, with some PAMs showing allosteric agonism in combination with positive allosteric modulation in response to endogenous ligand (ago-potentiators) as well as "bitopic" ligands that interact with both the allosteric and orthosteric sites. Drugs targeting the allosteric site allow for increased drug selectivity and potentially decreased adverse side effects. Promising evidence has demonstrated potential utility of a number of allosteric modulators of GPCRs in multiple CNS disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, as well as psychiatric or neurobehavioral diseases such as anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction.Neurobiology of Disease 09/2013; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.09.013 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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- "One mechanism suggested to account for both termination of signaling and receptor desensitization is receptor phosphorylation and binding of arrestin to the cytosolic parts of the agonist-occupied receptor , . According to this model, binding of arrestin causes occlusion of the heterotrimeric G-protein , , , . "
ABSTRACT: Neutrophils express different chemoattractant receptors of importance for guiding the cells from the blood stream to sites of inflammation. These receptors communicate with one another, a cross talk manifested as hierarchical, heterologous receptor desensitization. We describe a new receptor cross talk mechanism, by which desensitized formyl peptide receptors (FPRdes) can be reactivated. FPR desensitization is induced through binding of specific FPR agonists and is reached after a short period of active signaling. The mechanism that transfers the receptor to a non-signaling desensitized state is not known, and a signaling pathway has so far not been described, that transfers FPRdes back to an active signaling state. The reactivation signal was generated by PAF stimulation of its receptor (PAFR) and the cross talk was uni-directional. LatrunculinA, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, induced a similar reactivation of FPRdes as PAF while the phosphatase inhibitor CalyculinA inhibited reactivation, suggesting a role for the actin cytoskeleton in receptor desensitization and reactivation. The activated PAFR could, however, reactivate FPRdes also when the cytoskeleton was disrupted prior to activation. The receptor cross talk model presented prophesies that the contact on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane that blocks signaling between the G-protein and the FPR is not a point of no return; the receptor cross-talk from the PAFRs to the FPRdes initiates an actin-independent signaling pathway that turns desensitized receptors back to a signaling state. This represents a novel mechanism for amplification of neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species.PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e60169. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060169 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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