Article

Polymorphic Cis- and Trans-Regulation of Human Gene Expression

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
PLoS Biology (Impact Factor: 11.77). 09/2010; 8(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000480
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Author Summary
Cellular characteristics and functions are determined largely by gene expression and expression levels differ among individuals, however it is not clear how these levels are regulated. While many cis-acting DNA sequence variants in promoters and enhancers that influence gene expression have been identified, only a few polymorphic trans-regulators of human genes are known. Here, we used human B-cells from individuals belonging to large families and identified polymorphic trans-regulators for about 1,000 human genes. We validated these results by gene knockdown, metabolic perturbation studies and chromosome conformation capture assays. Although these regulatory relationships were identified in cultured B-cells, we show that some of the relationships were also found in primary fibroblasts. The large number of regulators allowed us to better understand gene expression regulation, to uncover new gene functions, and to identify their roles in disease processes. This study shows that genetic variation is a powerful tool not only for gene mapping but also to study gene interaction and regulation.

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