Polymorphic genetic control of tumor invasion in a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT Cancer is a disease subject to both genetic and environmental influences. In this study, we used the RIP1-Tag2 (RT2) mouse model of islet cell carcinogenesis to identify a genetic locus that influences tumor progression to an invasive growth state. RT2 mice inbred into the C57BL/6 (B6) background develop both noninvasive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) and invasive carcinomas with varying degrees of aggressiveness. In contrast, RT2 mice inbred into the C3HeB/Fe (C3H) background are comparatively resistant to the development of invasive tumors, as are RT2 C3HB6(F1) hybrid mice. Using linkage analysis, we identified a 13-Mb locus on mouse chromosome 17 with significant linkage to the development of highly invasive PNETs. A gene residing in this locus, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), was expressed at significantly lower levels in PNETs from invasion-resistant C3H mice compared with invasion-susceptible B6 mice, and pharmacological inhibition of Alk led to reduced tumor invasiveness in RT2 B6 mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor invasion is subject to polymorphic genetic control and identify Alk as a genetic modifier of invasive tumor growth.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jian-Hua Mao, Jun 24, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The intracellular anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fragment shows striking homology with members of the insulin receptor family and was initially identified as an oncogenic fusion protein resulting from a translocation in lymphoma and more recently in a range of cancers. The full-length ALK transmembrane receptor of ~220 kDa was identified based on this initial work. This tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligands, the growth factors pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are highly expressed during development of the nervous system and other organs. Each of these genes has been implicated in malignant progression of different tumor types and shown to alter phenotypes as well as signal transduction in cultured normal and tumor cells. Beyond its role in cancer, the ALK receptor pathway is thought to contribute to nervous system development, function, and repair, as well as metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of tissue regeneration. ALK receptor activity in cancer can be up-regulated by amplification, overexpression, ligand binding, mutations in the intracellular domain of the receptor and by activity of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPRz. Here we discuss the evidence for ligand control of ALK activity as well as the potential prognostic and therapeutic implications from gene expression and functional studies. An analysis of 18 published gene expression data sets from different cancers shows that overexpression of ALK, its smaller homolog LTK (leukocyte tyrosine kinase) and the ligands PTN and MK in cancer tissues from patients correlate significantly with worse course and outcome of the disease. This observation together with preclinical functional studies suggests that this pathway could be a valid therapeutic target for which complementary targeting strategies with small molecule kinase inhibitors as well as antibodies to ligands or the receptors may be used.Frontiers in Oncology 12/2012; 2:192. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00192
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic islet β cell tumor is the most common islet cell tumor. A well-characterized tumor progression in Rip1-Tag2 mice undergoes five stages, involving normal, hyperplasia, angiogenic islets, tumorigenesis and invasive carcinoma. (1)H NMR based metabonomics was applied to identify potential biomarkers for monitoring pancreatic islet β cell tumor progression in Rip1-Tag2 mice. Multivariate analysis results showed the serum metabonome at hyperplasia stage shared the similar characteristics with the ones at normal stage as a result of slight proliferation of pancreatic islet β cells. At angiogenic islets stage, the up-regulated glycolysis, disturbed choline and phospholipid metabolism composed the metabolic signature. In addition to the changes mentioned above, several metabolites were identified as early biomarkers for tumorigenesis, including increased methionine, citrate and choline, and reduced acetate, taurine and glucose, which suggested the activated energy and amino acid metabolism. All the changes were aggravated at invasive carcinoma stage, coupled with notable changes in alanine, glutamate and glycine. Moreover, the distinct metabolic phenotype was found associated with the implanting of SV40 large T antigen in Rip1-Tag2 mice. The combined metabolic and multivariate statistics approach provides a robust method for screening the biomarkers of disease progression and examining the association between gene and metabolism.International journal of biological sciences 01/2015; 11(5):595-603. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.11058 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutamate and its receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) have been associated with cancer, although their functions are not fully understood. Herein, we implicate glutamate-driven NMDAR signaling in a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumorigenesis (PNET) and in selected human cancers. NMDAR was upregulated at the periphery of PNET tumors, particularly invasive fronts. Moreover, elevated coexpression of NMDAR and glutamate exporters correlated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Treatment of a tumor-derived cell line with NMDAR antagonists impaired cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Flow conditions mimicking interstitial fluid pressure induced autologous glutamate secretion, activating NMDAR and its downstream MEK-MAPK and CaMK effectors, thereby promoting invasiveness. Congruently, pharmacological inhibition of NMDAR in mice with PNET reduced tumor growth and invasiveness. Therefore, beyond its traditional role in neurons, NMDAR may be activated in human tumors by fluid flow consequent to higher interstitial pressure, inducing an autocrine glutamate signaling circuit with resultant stimulation of malignancy.Cell 03/2013; 153(1):86-100. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.051 · 33.12 Impact Factor