Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis. Brain

Laboratory of Neuropathology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Brain (Impact Factor: 10.23). 10/2010; 133(10):2983-98. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awq250
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments for other plaque types and plaque number (P<0.05). Conversely, the proportion of remyelinated shadow plaques (P<0.05) and the overall remyelination capacity (P<0.01) per brain were higher in primary, compared with secondary, progressive multiple sclerosis. By contrast, there were no group differences in the brain load or frequency of low-grade inflammatory plaques with slowly expanding demyelination. Spinal cord lesion loads and remyelination capacity were also comparable in the two patient groups. Remyelinated areas were more vulnerable than the normal-appearing white matter to new demyelination, including active demyelination in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. 'Recurrent' slowly expanding demyelination, affecting remyelinated areas, and the load of slowly expanding demyelination correlated with incomplete remyelination in both groups. In turn, incomplete remyelination in the spinal cord correlated with higher disease-related disability (determined retrospectively; r = -0.53; P<0.05 for remyelination capacity versus disease severity). By contrast, such a correlation was not observed in the brain. We propose that regulatory and reparative properties could protect the white matter of the brain in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. These patients may, thereby, be spared symptoms until the spinal cord is affected. By contrast, recurrent active demyelination of repaired myelin could explain why similar symptoms often develop in consecutive relapses in relapsing-remitting/secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Our data also indicate that slowly expanding demyelination may irreparably destroy normal and repaired myelin, supporting the concept of slowly expanding demyelination as an important pathological correlate of clinical progression.

Download full-text


Available from: Josa M Frischer, Aug 27, 2015
  • Source
    • "is observation indicates that spinal cord PDLs are likely to have a significant impact on the neurological status of SPMS and PPMS patients . Supporting this view , a previous study provided evi - dence that neurological disability in patients with progressive MS correlated with the extent of demyelination in the spinal cord but not in the brain ( Bramow et al . , 2010 ) . In the pres - ent work , we could also demonstrate at the gene and protein level that myelin loss predominated over axonal loss and was not accompanied by significant remyelination in spinal cord PDLs . Indeed , the expression of key genes for mature or immature oligodendrocytes was decreased in PDLs and no morphological signs of re"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our knowledge of multiple sclerosis (MS) neuropathology has benefited from a number of studies that provided an in-depth description of plaques and, more recently, diffuse alterations of the normal-appearing white or grey matter. However, there have been few studies focusing on the periplaque regions surrounding demyelinated plaques, notably in MS spinal cords. In this context, the present study aimed to analyze the molecular immunopathology of periplaque demyelinated lesions (PDLs) in the spinal cord of patients with a progressive form of MS. To achieve this goal, the neuropathological features of PDLs were analyzed in postmortem tissues derived from the cervical spinal cord of 21 patients with primary or secondary progressive MS. We found that PDLs covered unexpectedly large areas of incomplete demyelination and were characterized by the superimposition of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecular signatures. Accordingly, macrophages/microglia accumulated in PDLs but exhibited a poor phagocytic activity toward myelin debris. Interestingly, while genes of the oligodendrocyte lineage were consistently down-regulated in PDLs, astrocyte-related molecules such as aquaporin 4, connexin 43 and the glutamate transporter EAAT1, were significantly upregulated in PDLs at the mRNA and protein levels. Overall, our work indicates that in the spinal cord of patients with a progressive form of MS, a tissue remodeling process that is temporally remote from plaque development takes place in PDLs. We propose that in spinal cord PDLs, this process is supported by subtle alterations of astrocyte functions and by low-grade inflammatory events that drive a slowly progressive loss of myelin and a failure of remyelination. GLIA 2014.
    Glia 10/2014; 62(10). DOI:10.1002/glia.22705 · 6.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to permanent cognitive and motor disabilities and characterized by inflammation, demyelination, oligodendrocyte loss, and axonal pathology (Kutzelnigg et al. 2005; Tumani et al. 2009; Bramow et al. 2010). The etiology of MS is unknown and no effective cure is available. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2 are key enzymes required for the conversion of arachidonic acid to eicosanoids, potent mediators of inflammation. In patients with multiple sclerosis, COX-2 derived prostaglandins (PGs) are elevated in the CSF and COX-2 is up-regulated in demyelinating plaques. However, it is not known whether COX-2 activity contributes to oligodendrocyte death. In cuprizone-induced demyelination, oligodendrocyte apoptosis and a concomitant increase in the gene expression of COX-2 and PGE₂-EP2 receptor precede histological demyelination. COX-2 and EP2 receptor were expressed by oligodendrocytes, suggesting a causative role for the COX-2/EP2 pathway in the initiation of oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. COX-2 gene deletion, chronic treatment with the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib, or with the EP2 receptor antagonist AH6809 reduced cuprizone-induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis, the degree of demyelination and motor dysfunction. These data indicate that the PGE₂ EP2 receptor contributes to oligodendrocyte apoptosis and open possible new therapeutic approaches for multiple sclerosis.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2011; 121(3):418-27. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07363.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
Show more