Racial Differences in the Effects of Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Neurodevelopment
ABSTRACT We used the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine the association between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, measured as serum cotinine levels, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children 4 to 15 years of age. We further investigated the interactions of race and serum cotinine levels with ADHD.
Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations.
This study found that the prevalence of ADHD increased as blood cotinine levels increased. The effects of blood cotinine levels on ADHD differed according to race. Compared with children of the same racial group with the lowest blood cotinine levels, the odds ratios were 2.72 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-5.93) for Mexican American children and 5.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.55-18.3) for children in other racial groups with the highest blood cotinine levels, with controlling for the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy. However, no significant associations between blood cotinine levels and ADHD were observed among non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black children.
The findings of this study underscore the possibility of racial disparities in the effects of environmental tobacco smoke on behavioral problems in children. These findings warrant further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: The immune-modulating effects of alcohol and smoking are well known through a great body of research. Furthermore, many studies have been performed on the influence of alcohol and smoking on the development of allergic disease. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results with associations between alcohol intake or smoking and risk of allergy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption and smoking on total serum immunoglobulin E (TIgE) and prevalence of sensitization to Dermatophagoides farinae in a representative sample of Korean adults. TIgE levels and IgE levels specific to D. farinae were measured. Alcohol, smoking habit, and other influencing variables were obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination. Smoking (smoked five packs or more in lifetime) was independently associated with increased risk of sensitization to D. farinae (odds ratio [OR], 1.439; 95% CI, 1.075-1.927). Frequent alcohol drinking (more than four times a week) also showed similar association when compared with subjects who drank less than once per month (OR, 2.052; 95% CI, 1.257-3.350). TIgE levels were also increased along with increased frequency of alcohol drinking. However, smoking habit was not related to TIgE levels. These findings suggest that history of smoking and frequent alcohol consumption are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sensitization to D. farinae. In addition, frequency of alcohol drinking was also related to a moderate increase in TIgE levels in Korean adults.American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 01/2014; 28(1):35-9. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2014.28.3999 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean age = 11.3 years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradigm. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Potential confounders were documented from a maternal interview, and exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. PCSE was not related to behavioral performance on this simple response inhibition task. Nevertheless, this exposure was associated with smaller amplitudes of the N2 and P3 components elicited by No-go stimuli, suggesting an impairment in the neural processes underlying response inhibition. Amplitude of the No-go P3 component was also inversely associated with behavioral measures of externalizing problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity in the classroom. This study is the first to report neurophysiological evidence of impaired response inhibition in school-aged children exposed to tobacco smoke in utero. Effects were found on ERP components associated with conflict processing and inhibition of a prepotent response, indicating neurophysiological deficits that may play a critical role in the attention and behavior problems observed in children with PCSE.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 01/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2014; 122(10). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307088 · 7.03 Impact Factor