Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of the white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons; Cebidae, Primates) by means of mtCOII gene sequences

Laboratorio de Genética de Poblaciones Molecular-Biología Evolutiva, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cra 7ª No. 43-82, Bogotá DC, Colombia.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 3.92). 12/2010; 57(3):1049-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.09.002
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A total of 696 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial COII gene were sequenced from 118 individuals of Cebus albifrons (plus an individual of Cebus olivaceus) sampled from diverse geographical areas of Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. These animals represented all of the C. albifrons's taxa described by Hershkovitz (1949) in Colombia and Peru (10 out of 13 subspecies are described by this author). The sequences analyzed demonstrate the existence of three well defined groups in northern Colombia (trans-Andean): malitosus, versicolor-pleei-cesarae and leucocephalus. They arose from at least, three distinct migrations from different Amazonian groups. Five different Amazonian and Eastern Llanos C. albifrons's groups (I, II, III, IV, and V) were also found. In many Amazonian localities, some of these groups live in sympatry probably by secondary expansion after their respective formations. Amazonian group I is closely related to the versicolor-pleei-cesarae group, malitosus is closely related to Amazonian group V, while leucocephalus is closely related to Amazonian group IV. Nevertheless, our genetic analysis could not resolve the genetic relationships among the main C. albifrons groups. The ρ-statistic applied to the median-joining network yielded that the major part of the temporal splits estimated occurred in the Pleistocene, reinforcing the importance of the Pleistocene refugia during the evolution of C. albifrons.

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Available from: Manuel Ruiz-García, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "squirrel monkeys was probably triggered by refuge areas (Chiou et al. 2011). However, most vertebrate taxa in Amazonia diversified before the forest got fragmented (Collins and Dubach 2000, Cortés-Ortiz et al. 2003, Ruíz-Garcia et al. 2010). In contrast to most vertebrate diversifications, the diversification of the geographically restricted orchid bee taxa may be seen as a result of the isolation within the resulting rainforest islands in combination with the need to adapt to local climatic conditions . "
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    ABSTRACT: Amazonian rainforests are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on Earth. The aim of this study was to analyze phylogenetic diversity (PD) patterns of orchid bee assemblages along a latitudinal gradient of 15° from northern Peru to central Bolivia and to relate them to climatic factors and geological history. We expanded an existing phylogeny of orchid bees and analyzed the PD of 15 orchid bee assemblages along a latitudinal gradient using mean pair-wise phylogenetic distance. The resulting pattern was correlated to climatic factors and elevation. We found a hump-shaped pattern of PD that peaked in central Peru and decreased towards the equatorial and especially towards the southern, subtropical sites. The decrease in PD towards higher latitudes is a common pattern found in many taxa, which in our case correlates with increasing climatic seasonality. However, the decrease towards the equatorial sites is unusual and may be related to a particular historic event: the northern sites with low PD are situated in the area of the former Lake Pebas, which covered western Amazonia until 3 mya. After the lake disappeared orchid bees mainly belonging to two distantly related species groups apparently colonized the region and diversified, which led to the comparatively low observed PD. In contrast, in central Peru, no in situ radiations were detected, hence the assemblages were composed of species from diverse phylogenetic lineages. Additionally, we identified multiple phylogenetically independent radiations of regionally restricted Euglossa species along the latitudinal gradient that, according to a published, dated phylogeny, diversified roughly 3–1 mya. The hump-shaped latitudinal pattern of PD of the orchid bees of western Amazonia thus appears to have resulted from a preponderance of early divergent lineages in central Peru and of young radiations from distantly related clades colonizing higher latitudes, possibly triggered by historic climate fluctuations and major geological events.
    Ecography 11/2013; 37(5). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00417.x · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    • "The gene diversity levels for C. capucinus were high and similar to other Neotropical primates studied with the same molecular marker (taking into account the sequence length and the sample size) (Lagothrix lagotricha and Aotus vociferans; L. lagotricha: S 5 325, H d 5 0.962, p 5 0.027; A. vociferans: S 5 101, H d 5 0.885, p 5 0.022). On the contrary, Cebus albifrons showed a gene diversity somewhat higher than C. capucinus (S 5 361, H d 5 0.944, p 5 0.032), while C. capucinus yielded a higher gene diversity than Cebus apella (S 5 78, H d 5 0.874, p 5 0.012) [Ruiz-García & Pinedo-Castro, 2010a; Ruiz-García et al., 2010c,e; Ruiz-García & Castillo, 2011]. This result agrees quite well with the fact that C. capucinus and C. albifrons are older species than C. apella and other related taxa to this last species (C. "
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    ABSTRACT: We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period.
    American Journal of Primatology 04/2012; 74(4):366-80. DOI:10.1002/ajp.20940 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    • "composed of more species than was previously believed . C. capucinus evidently comprises two distinct species [Ruiz-García et al., 2012] and C. albifrons as currently defined has now been found to be paraphyletic [Boubli et al., 2012; Lynch Alfaro et al., 2011; Ruiz-García et al., 2010]. To understand the phylogeography of variation in the species (and subspecies ) of capuchins it would be of great value if the taxonomic identity of subjects in captive research were carefully established. "
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    ABSTRACT: Capuchin monkey behavior has been the focus of increasing numbers of captive and field studies in recent years, clarifying behavioral and ecological differences between the two morphological types: the gracile and the robust capuchins (also referred to as untufted and tufted). Studies have tended to focus on the gracile species Cebus capucinus (fewer data are available for C. albifrons, C. olivaceus, and C. kaapori) and on Cebus apella, a name that has encompassed all of the robust capuchins since the 1960s. As a result, it is difficult to ascertain the variation within either gracile or robust types. The phylogenetic relationships between gracile and robust capuchins have also, until now, remained obscure. Recent studies have suggested two independent Pliocene radiations of capuchins stemming from a common ancestor in the Late Miocene, about 6.2 millions of years ago (Ma). The present-day gracile capuchins most likely originated in the Amazon, and the robust capuchins in the Atlantic Forest to the southeast. Sympatry between the two types is explained by a recent expansion of robust capuchins into the Amazon (ca. 400,000 years ago). Morphological data also support a division of capuchins into the same two distinct groups, and we propose the division of capuchin monkeys into two genera, Sapajus Kerr, 1792, for robust capuchins and Cebus Erxleben, 1777, for gracile capuchins, based on a review of extensive morphological, genetic, behavioral, ecological, and biogeographic evidence.
    American Journal of Primatology 04/2012; 74(4):273-86. DOI:10.1002/ajp.22007 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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