T. Kozlowski, V. Nickeleit, K. Andreoni. Donor-transmitted adenovirus infection causing kidney allograft nephritis and graft loss. Transpl Infect Dis 2011: 13: 168–173. All rights reserved
Abstract: Adenovirus (AdV) infection can occur early after transplantation, especially with potent immunosuppression for induction or acute rejection treatment. We present the largest case series of adult renal recipients from a single institution with AdV infection, and the first apparent case of transferred AdV infection from 1 deceased donor to 2 kidney recipients. Three patients received kidneys from 2 deceased donors: 2 from a 23-year-old donor, and the third from a 4-year-old donor. The recipients with the same donor both displayed early rejection. One who eventually lost his graft to AdV nephritis required treatment with plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, and anti-thymocyte globulin for severe antibody-mediated rejection. The second required only steroids for acute cellular rejection and has good renal function at 7 years. The third recipient was discovered to have AdV and microabscesess on renal biopsy and required nephrectomy. In the 2 cases of graft loss, we observed sudden deterioration of graft function with rising creatinine and subsequent necrosis resulting in nephrectomy within 40 days after transplantation. AdV was detected by polymerase chain reaction in urine or serum and/or renal tissue. AdV activation after potent immunosuppression can lead to systemic infection and may trigger rejection and/or early graft loss.
"Des observations ont fait e ´ tat de corré lation entre la charge virale et la sé vé rité des manifestions cliniques  . Une observation a mis en e ´ vidence la possibilité de transmission par le donneur . Il n'y a pas de transmission saisonniè re du virus chez le transplanté ré nal  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral infections are an important complication of transplantation. Polyomavirus are the commonest viruses that infect the renal allograft. Herpes virus nephropathy has also been described. In the past 15 years, adenovirus nephritis has emerged as a potentially life-threatening disease in renal transplant patients in developed countries. Most of the papers devoted to adenovirus nephritis are reported cases. The fate of such patients in resources-limited countries is not known. Herein, we describe the clinical, biological and prognostic findings of a black African transplanted patient with adenoviral hemorrhagic cystitis. This case is the very first of its kind reported in black Africa in a setting of a start of a renal transplantation pilot project. The patient is a 54-year-old man admitted at the nephrology service for gross haematuria and fever occurred 1 month after kidney transplantation. The diagnosis of adenoviral hemorrhagic cystitis has been suspected because the patient has displayed recurrent conjunctivitis and gastroenteritis well before transplantation, which was then confirmed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction performed on the blood. Conservatory measures associated with immunosuppression reduction have permitted the discontinuation of haematuria. This case has been discussed in regard of the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the treatment, the evolution and the prognosis of the adenoviral infection in the renal transplant patient. A review of the literature has been performed subsequently.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor.
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